We found a total prevalence of of

We found a total prevalence of 18/120 (15 %) of DNA in the collected fecal samples (). The majority of the positive samples (10/120) were collected in Central Park West in Manhattan resulting in a prevalence of 17% for that park, while four positive samples were from Van Cortland Park in the Bronx, resulting in a prevalence of 12% (). Additionally, four -positive samples were found in Prospect Park in Brooklyn, resulting in a prevalence of 11% (). We were not able to obtain sequence data from one of the positive sample. Sequence analysis of 17 of the positive amplicons revealed 16 isolates of the zoonotic TAPI-1 A (94.1%) and one isolate of the dog-specific D genotype (5.9%). Other genotypes were not observed in this study. DNA from both parasites was not detected concurrently in any the samples collected. All the samples in our studies were found to be from domestic dogs (data not shown).
This study uncovered the prevalence of and infections in domestic dogs frequenting three popular and active public parks in New York City. Toxoplasmosis and giardiasis are serious public health concerns worldwide because and are zoonotic parasites. In the United States alone, it is estimated that 60 million individuals are infected with (CDC, 2015). Since dogs are intermediate hosts for , our data indicate environmental contamination with oocysts.
In conclusion, this study reveals and protozoan parasites in domestic dogs frequenting New York City parks. The finding of assemblage I and genotype A in these popular and frequently visited parks is noteworthy and has significant implications for public health, particularly for individuals with impaired immune system frequenting these parks as well as children who play in those parks. In both cases, thorough handwashing prior to food consumption is advisable. In the future, we will sample at different time frames and expand to other parks.
Conflict of interest statement

The authors would like to thank the Department of Biology and the School of Science at Manhattan College for financial support. The authors are also grateful to Drs. Steven Singer (Georgetown University, Washington D.C.) and Dr. Gustavo Arrizabalaga (Indiana School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN) for Giardia duodenalis and T. gondii genomic DNA, respectively. Preliminary results were presented as an Abstract at the 89th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Parasitologists, New Orleans, USA, 24th–27th July 2014.

Ducks are frequently infected by and without showing clinical signs and may serve as a carrier of spp. to other animals (). Hatcheries are a potential source of infection for 1-day-old chicks through environmental contamination, but it is uncertain whether vertical transmission occurs through the egg ().
Erythromycin, fluoroquinolones (FQ), gentamicin and tetracycline are effective treatments for disease due to spp., but careful use of antibiotics is required to reduce the risk of emergence of resistant strains, which could be transmitted to humans (). The resistance of spp. to tetracycline is commonly associated with the presence of the (O) gene, which could be transferred from resistant strains to sensitive strains (). Likewise, mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region () of , especially T86I, have been linked to the resistance of spp. to FQ with incidence of hypermutable phenotype in resistant strains to FQ (). The aim of this study was to provide information on antibiotic resistance of spp. in 1-day-old ducklings in Egypt.
A total of 150 faecal meconium samples (~1 g each) were collected in 9 mL Bolton broth (Oxoid) from 1-day-old commercial meat ducklings (e.g. Muscovy, Mallard). All samples were submitted to the Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Giza, for routine examination in 2011 and 2012. Isolation and biochemical identification of spp. were performed according to ISO 10272-1 using blood-free selective media (CCD agar and Karmali agar; Oxoid). Resistance against ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT), gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol (Oxoid) was determined using the disc diffusion method test conducted following the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.