Tag Archives: THZ531

br Conclusions In this paper an experimental theoretical

In this paper an experimental-theoretical study was conducted on long concrete columns confined by means of proper plastic tube (FRP). Based on the analysis of test results, the following main conclusions can be summarized:

Anaesthesia is defined as a branch of the medical science profession which ensures that the patient’s body remains insensitive to pain and other stimuli during surgical operations. It includes muscle relaxation (paralysis), unconsciousness (hypnosis), and analgesia (pain relief). The first two are concentrated in the operating theater, whereas the third is related to postoperative conditions [1].
In practice, the anaesthetist has a number of clinical signs and on-line measurements which can be used selectively for the determination of the patient’s state such as blood pressure, THZ531 rate, and electroencephalography (EEG) pattern [2,3]. The aim of an anaesthesia control system is the automation of some control tasks of the anaesthetist in normal situation to avoid dangerous situations; the anaesthetist should always have a clear overview of the state of the automated processes [4]. Two methods for controlling drug administration are commonly known, open and closed loop control. When the anaesthetist makes a decision to maintain or change a desired target drug dose, concentration or clinical effect, this is called open loop control. Closed loop controllers are computer programs designed to maintain a targeted effect by adapting the administered amounts of drug. In closed loop control, the anaesthetist enters only the desired variables to be maintained [5]. Two drugs, atracurium and isoflurane, are commonly used for general anaesthesia. These drugs interact the anaesthesia and muscle relaxation signs that are the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and the evoked electromyogram (EMG) respectively [6].
There are two main problems in multivariable anaesthesia system. First, the nonlinear structure in the so-called pharmacodynamics for the relaxant drugs behaviour may be make the muscle relaxation level to saturate with any large control dose. Second, there is a great uncertainty inherited from the large inter-individual and intra-individual variability of the patient’s parameters and the large delay time of this process. Hence, these problems make the multivariable anaesthesia system is a very challenging one. The generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm and the self-organized fuzzy logic control (SOFLC) have been proposed to deal with the multivariable anaesthesia problem [3]. A novel neural network-based control scheme has been also proposed to deal with such problem [7]. Type-1 FLC has been also proposed to deal with anaesthesia system [4,8–10].
The adaptive fuzzy controllers are classified into direct and indirect adaptive fuzzy controller. A direct adaptive fuzzy controllers use FLS as controllers; therefore, linguistic fuzzy control rules can be directly incorporated into the controllers. On the other hand, indirect adaptive fuzzy controllers use FLS to model the plant and construct the controllers assuming that the FLS represent the true plant. Therefore, fuzzy IF-THEN rules describing the plant can be directly incorporated into indirect adaptive fuzzy controller [11].
The concept of type-2 fuzzy sets is an extension of the concept of the ordinary fuzzy sets (type-1 fuzzy sets). A type-2 fuzzy set is characterized by a fuzzy membership function, i.e., the membership grade for each element of this set is a fuzzy set in [0,1], unlike type-1 fuzzy set where the membership grade is a crisp number in [0,1] [12]. Therefore, type-2 fuzzy set provides additional degrees of freedom that can make it possible to directly model and handle the uncertainties [13]. The interval type-2 fuzzy logic control (IT2-FLC) is a special case of the type-2 fuzzy logic system [14]. IT2-FLCs have been applied to various fields with great success [12,14–23].

THZ531 br Treatment Related Factors br

Treatment-Related Factors

Packing density, duration of follow-up, stent use, and initial angiographic result were previously reported to be significantly associated with aneurysm recanalization.5, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15 and 16 The relationship between packing density and recanalization remains controversial.11, 12 and 14 Sluzewski et al.12 found that high packing density (>20%–24%) prevented recanalization and that large aneurysm volume was associated with low packing density and frequent recanalization. By contrast, Piotin et al.11 found no significant association between packing density and aneurysm recanalization. These differences may relate to the different number of aneurysms (145 aneurysms vs. 255 aneurysms) that were followed over different time periods (mean 6 months vs. 12 months). Additionally, the use of two-dimensional angiographic images12 and 14 versus 3-D reconstructed images11 to measure the aneurysm volume may influence the calculation of packing density. In our series, the stable aneurysms showed a nonsignificant trend for higher packing density than the recanalized aneurysms.

The relationship between length of follow-up THZ531 and recanalization is also unclear.5, 11, 15 and 17 Raymond et al.5 and Piotin et al.11 found that aneurysms assessed at long-term follow-up (12 months) were at more risk for recanalization than aneurysms assessed at midterm follow-up (6 months). However, Murayama et al.15 analyzed long-term clinical outcomes of 916 aneurysms and found that recanalization usually occurred within 3 months, especially for aneurysms without complete occlusion at initial treatment. Gallas et al.17 further evaluated the stability of occlusion of 705 ruptured aneurysms that were treated by coiling THZ531 and underwent follow-up evaluation at 3 months and 1 year and yearly examinations thereafter and demonstrated that 96% of aneurysms observed to be completely occluded at 12 months remained stable at final follow-up (mean 36 months). In our series, the length of follow-up period was not a significant risk factor associated with recanalization, which might be attributed to the characteristics of multiple aneurysms in the same patient.

Previous studies demonstrated that stents can create a mechanical scaffold, markedly modify intraaneurysm flow, promote thrombosis, provide a matrix for endothelial growth, and decrease recanalization rate.3, 4, 9, 18 and 35 Hong et al.3 conducted a meta-analysis and found that stent-assisted coiling treatment was associated with a higher progressive thrombosis rate (37.5% vs. 19.4%) and a lower recanalization rate (16.2% vs. 34.4%) compared with subjects with coiling only. In the present study, 44.4% (8 of 18) of aneurysms showed recanalization after treatment with stent-assisted coiling, whereas 62.5% (5 of 8) of aneurysms showed recanalization at angiographic follow-up after treatment with coiling only, although there was no significant difference between the groups.