Tag Archives: THZ1 Hydrochloride

We have reported that retinoids both

We have reported that retinoids, both RAs and retinoic THZ1 Hydrochloride receptor (RAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) analogs, are capable of enhancing macrophage cholesterol efflux, and these events involve activation of the LXR pathway [1,2]. Specifically, retinoid mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux has been shown to be influenced by the LXR regulated genes, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and ABCA1. To obtain further insights into the LXR regulatory events, RAW 264.7 macrophages were transfected with an LXRE reporter plasmid (pLXREx3-Luc; [1,3]), and the effects of selective analogs with affinities to both RAR (TTNPB; Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO) and RXR (SR11233; Sigma-Aldrich) on luciferase/LXR activity were determined. As illustrated in Fig. 2, LXRE transfected macrophages treated with TTNPB (5µM; [1]) and SR11233 (5µM; [1]), individually, resulted in 2.6±0.4 and 3.2±0.6 fold increases in luciferase activity over untreated cells, respectively. LXR activity was unaffected in response to 0.1mM (Bu)2cAMP. Addition of (Bu)2cAMP (0.1mM) to either TTNPB or SR11233 incubation significant enhanced (p<0.001) LXR activity, when compared with controls. Co-incubation of SR11233 and (Bu)2cAMP displayed ~2 fold increase in LXR activity, over the combined response seen with TTNPB and (Bu)2cAMP. These data are connected with our previous findings that demonstrate that both RAs and RAR/RXR analogs effectively enhance macrophage cholesterol efflux through activation of the LXR pathway [1,2].
Experimental design, materials and methods


These data were obtained as described in detail in [1]. SAXD diffractograms, SAXD and WAXD spacings, 31P NMR and 2H NMR are included obtained from idebenone-DPPC and idebenol/DPPC samples.

Experimental design, materials and methods
Materials. 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC); 1, 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1, 2-d62-sn- dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC-d62) were obtained from Avanti Polar Lipids (Birmingham, Alabama, USA). Idebenone was from TCI Europe N.W. (Zwijndrecht, Belgium) and all other chemicals were highly pure from Sigma Chemical Co. (Madrid, Spain).


This work was supported partially by funds from Universidad de Murcia (Grant 368).

In the present work related to [1], we show differences in amounts of individual forms of respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV quantified from western blots of 2D BNE/SDS PAGE analysis, as determined in mitochondria of SURF1 and SURF1 mouse fibroblasts and tissues (heart, muscle, brain, liver) and also in mitochondria of human control and SURF1 deficient fibroblasts (Figs. 1–3).
Then we show data (Fig. 4) from analysis of fibroblast cell lines from SURF1mouse, SURF1 patient and controls, in which translation of mitochondrial DNA encoded proteins was reversibly inhibited with doxycycline (DOX). After DOX removal, the formation of newly synthetized COX in time (0–96h) was assessed by SDS PAGE and western blot analysis.

Experimental design, materials and methods


Experimental design, materials and methods

RNA extraction

The cDNA library construction and sequencing
The TruSeq RNA Sample Prep Kit (Illumina) was used to isolate mRNA from about 5μg of total RNA using oligo-d(T)25 magnetic beads. The mRNA was sheared with ions into ~200nt fragments and was reverse-transcribed into cDNA. We then used the TruSeq PE Cluster Kit v3 (Illumina) to perform end repair, add an ‘A’-base to the blunt ends, and ligate the cDNA to paired-end adapters. The cDNA samples were amplified through 15 cycles of PCR. The amplification products were electrophoresed on a 2% Certified Low Range Ultra Agarose gel (Bio-Rad) and purified according to appropriate size of DNA fragments suitable for Illumina sequencing. The purified products were quantified using PicoGreen (Life Technologies) and a TBS-380 Mini-Fluorometer (Promega) and loaded on an Illumina cBot system for cluster generation by bridge PCR amplification. Sequencing was performed on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform.

THZ1 Hydrochloride To date no studies have examined the

To date, no studies have examined the immune correlates identified in the RV144 trial for their possible role in protection against SI. Moreover, studies that have investigated other humoral correlates of SI, which have had conflicting findings, have generally been limited to examining one response at a time and small numbers of cases. Two case-controls studies in the Mombasa Cohort found no difference between cases and singly-infected controls: one included 6 SI cases and investigated neutralizing antibody breadth and potency (Blish et al., 2008; UNAIDS, 2016) and the other included 12 SI cases and investigated antibody-dependent cellular viral inhibition (ADCVI) (Haynes et al., 2012; Forthal et al., 2013). However, studies in other cohorts, each comparing 3 SI cases to singly-infected controls, have suggested lower autologous neutralizing antibody (Altfeld et al., 2002; Smith et al., 2004; Chohan et al., 2005; Smith et al., 2006; Piantadosi et al., 2007; Basu et al., 2012; Redd et al., 2012; Ronen et al., 2013) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) (Basu et al., 2014) in SI cases than controls. Given these conflicting findings, larger studies are needed. Additionally, because synergistic or antagonistic relationships likely exist between different immune functions, any correlate of protection may in fact consist of a combination of responses, which would be missed in studies of a single immune measure. Indeed, interaction analysis in the RV144 study showed that in the presence of low levels of Env-specific IgA, ADCC activity and infection risk were inversely associated, while in the presence of high Env-specific IgA, no such association was present (Haynes et al., 2012). This finding has been hypothesized to be due to competition between binding THZ1 Hydrochloride (Tomaras et al., 2013). Evaluating multiple immune correlates in aggregate may provide a more nuanced understanding of HIV acquisition risk.

Materials and Methods


Elucidation of the immune responses that provide protection from HIV infection is an important step in designing protective vaccines. We have previously reported that the incidence of SI is two-fold lower than that of initial infection, after adjustment for differences in sexual risk behavior (Ronen et al., 2013), suggesting the immune response to initial infection may provide some protection against subsequent infection. In the present study, we employed a matched case-control study design to characterize differences between the immune response of individuals who acquired SI and that of individuals who remained singly infected despite ongoing HIV exposure. Association between SI status and a panel of measures of humoral responses against HIV was evaluated, including plasma IgG binding to V1V2, plasma IgA binding to gp140, plasma neutralizing antibody breadth and potency, and plasma and genital ADCC. We found no statistically significant association between SI acquisition and any of the antibody functions assayed. Interaction analysis did not find evidence of modification of the effect of IgG-mediated binding or killing by IgA binding. Sensitivity analyses restricted to individuals who had been HIV-infected for at least 6months, and to intra-subtype SI cases, did not change these results. Exploratory analysis of 32 additional binding antibody activities did not suggest any additional associations with SI acquisition.
Our study hypotheses were motivated by the findings of several prior studies. Analysis of recipients of the RV144 vaccine pointed to IgA binding to gp140 and IgG binding to V1V2 as positive and negative correlates of HIV acquisition respectively, with evidence of antagonism between the two functions (Haynes et al., 2012). Additionally, several antibody effector functions have been implicated as correlates of natural HIV infection. In the context of mother-to-child transmission, breast milk IgA binding to gp140 (Pollara et al., 2015) and ADCC activity (Mabuka et al., 2012) were associated with reduced breast milk transmission, and maternal plasma IgG binding to V3 was associated with reduced perinatal transmission (Permar et al., 2015; Martinez et al., 2017). While several small studies have previously investigated the humoral immune correlates of SI, the results were conflicting. Comparing 3 early SI cases and 11 matched controls in the first year of infection from a cohort of subtype B infected men who have sex with men, Smith et al. reported lower neutralizing antibody activity in cases (Smith et al., 2006). Similarly, Basu et al. compared 3 SI cases and 10 controls in the first year of infection from a cohort of subtype C infected heterosexual men and women and reported lower neutralizing antibody activity, lower ADCC activity and a non-significant trend for lower V1V2 IgG binding and higher gp120 IgA binding in cases (Basu et al., 2012, 2014). However, while Basu et al. found the 3 SI cases to have delayed autologous neutralizing antibody kinetics compared to controls, they reported no difference in heterologous neutralizing antibody breadth between cases and controls (Basu et al., 2012), similar to the findings reported here. Previous analysis of 12 of the Mombasa Cohort SI cases included in this study to 36 matched controls detected no significant difference in neutralization breadth and potency or antibody-dependent cell-mediated viral inhibition (ADCVI, which captures ADCC and other immune-mediated viral inhibition) between cases and controls (Blish et al., 2008; Forthal et al., 2013).

In contrast published case reports deny

In contrast, published case reports deny the presence of erectile problems in those reporting addiction problems to VSS [12]. Another study reported no relationship between sexual inhibition and impaired erectile function in a sample of self-identified sex addicts [13]. Moreover, another study of 161 men with a primary complaint of hypersexuality found no elevation in erectile problems [14]. Mudry and colleagues [15] noted a lack of empirical studies on hypersexuality, suggesting the required data to link hypersexuality and erectile problems may simply not exist yet.
Some “hypersexuals” report difficulty finding a new sex partner, so it may not be reasonable to expect this group as a whole to report erectile problems if they do not have a partner [16]. However, an overwhelming majority of those who self-report hypersexuality endorse problems with VSS use [17]. Accordingly, hypersexual patients may represent a special subset of VSS consumers. For example, many of those who label themselves as sex addicts also report a stronger religious background [18]. For these reasons, it would be useful to examine whether erectile functioning is dependent on the level of VSS consumed by those who are not receiving treatment for hypersexual problems.
VSS viewing may affect erectile functioning through at least two mechanisms. More VSS viewing may result in tolerance or desensitization. For example, those who started viewing VSS at earlier ages report more breadth (termed “deviant” in the study) in their current VSS viewing [4]. Thus, erectile problems may occur when real-life sexual stimulation does not match the broad content accessed through VSS. There is evidence that gross anatomical differences exist in the average THZ1 Hydrochloride of those who view more VSS [19], but it is unclear whether the differences precede or follow VSS consumption. Secondly, erections may become conditioned to aspects of VSS that do not transition easily to real-life partner situations. Sexual arousal may be conditioned to novel stimuli (for review, see Brom et al. [20]), including particular sexual images [21], specific sexual films [22], or even nonsexual images [23,24]. It is conceivable that experiencing the majority of sexual arousal within the context of VSS may result in a diminished erectile response during partnered sexual interactions. Similarly, young men who view VSS expect that partnered sex will occur with themes similar to what they view in VSS [25]. Accordingly, when high stimulation expectations are not met, partnered sexual stimulation is ineffective.
Confounding variables also may link VSS consumption to erectile problems, thereby creating an association between the two that is not actually causal. Perhaps the most likely of these confounding variables is anxiety. Anxiety has been clearly and repeatedly linked to erectile problems (e.g., Beck and Barlow [26]). VSS lacks many of the features of partnered sex that could induce anxiety during sex, such as concerns about the partner\’s sexually transmitted disease status, relationship expectations, and concerns about one\’s own attractiveness or penis size. In sum, there are direct and indirect reasons why VSS may be associated with erectile problems.
The generation of an erection in response to sexual stimulation requires a relatively complex integration of information. When responding to VSS with an erection, men must attend to the VSS, recognize it as possessing sexual content, be motivated by the particular content presented, and experience general autonomic activation in addition to the very specific activation of penile motor cortex [27]. Men with erectile problems show similar areas of activity in their brain when viewing VSS to men without erectile problems, and apomorphine further enhances response in the lateral superior frontal cortex associated with erections [28,29]. In studies that do suggest some brain response differences between these men, these appear to reflect primarily frontal areas of control coming online [28,30]. This appears more consistent with problems due to a third variable, such as anxiety, rather than a downregulation of areas associated with sexual rewards.

The mode of action for Manuka

The mode of action for Manuka honey was reported to be due to extensive cell lysis after exposure to inhibitory concentrations of the honey (Roberts et al., 2012, 2015). The effect of honey on the modulation of bacterial resistance is very promising and may be related to the complex composition of honey used which contains a combination of components that may act in a synergistic manner to compromise the resistance. Published work on the effect of honey on the development of bacterial resistance indicated that it may be very low because of the variability in the composition among various types of honey which depends on the: (1) types of nectar that the bees fed, (2) the related weather conditions, (3) storage time and (4) conditions of preservation (Sherlock et al., 2010; Al-Waili and Boni, 2003).

This research was sponsored by a Grant from Yousef A. Jameel Scientific Chair of Prophetic Medicine Application, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The amount of the wastewater containing soybean protein is huge in Chin, with the great development of the soybean protein (Su and Yu, 2005). Soybean protein wastewater is the high organic wastewater, which contains organism, nitrogen and phosphorus (Bao et al., 2009). Therefore, it is crucial to develop an innovative appropriate THZ1 Hydrochloride reactor for treating soybean protein wastewater.
Most of the treatment studies on soybean protein processing wastewater have focused on aerobic and membrane technology (Su and Yu, 2005). However they have the shortages such as sludge yield, membrane pollution and high cost, which restrict the utilization of pond treatment system. It is regarded that anaerobic biological treatment technology is the most efficient method to deal with the high concentration of organism wastewater, which can also gain biomass energy (Maroun and Fadel, 2008; Hong and David, 2007a,b; Barber and Stuckey, 1999). Therefore, it is crucial to develop an innovative appropriate anaerobic reactor for treating and gaining biomass energy from soybean protein wastewater.
Although, a lot of anaerobic reactors such as upflow sludge blanket reactor (UASB), anaerobic filter (AF), and anaerobic continually stirred tank reactor (CSTR) have been developed, the two-phase anaerobic process has many advantages compared to those anaerobic reactors. The process of anaerobic decomposing organic substrate can be simplified into two phases of acid production and the methane production (Yu et al., 2014). The microbial activity is directly influenced by the temperature in the anaerobic reactor (Speece, 1996; Barber and Stuckey, 1999; Angenent et al., 2002). The two-phase anaerobic technology which improved separation of phases (acidogenic and methanogenic) possessed stable and high removal rate, and stronger ability to resist impact load than common anaerobic devices. The literature survey shows that it lacks on the anaerobic treatment of soybean protein wastewater by the two-phase anaerobic technology. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility for treating soybean protein wastewater by a laboratory-scale the two-phase anaerobic technology.

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

The soybean protein wastewater could be successfully processed around 30days when running under the situation of dosing seed sludge with the influent approximately 2000mg/L and an HRT of 40h. When the start-up finished, the removal rate of COD by the reactor was about 80%. In the zone I, biogas mainly revealed carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H2). Methane was the main component in the zone 2 which ranged from 53% to 59% with an average of 55%. The methane content in biogas increased from the zone I to II. It indicated that the methane-producing capacity of the anaerobic sludge increased.
There were some differences between the activities of the sludge in the two reaction zones of the integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor. The activity of protease was higher in the reaction zone I and the coenzyme F420 in the reaction zone II was twice than that in the reaction zone I, which indicated that the activity of the methanogens was stronger in the reaction zone II. The integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor in this study was simple in structure avoiding several equipments of the traditional two-phase anaerobic system. It was observed to be an efficient reactor configuration for the treatment of the soybean protein wastewater.

br Results and discussion Our measurements for the encountered old

Results and discussion
Our measurements for the encountered old T. aphylla indicate that it is among the largest old trees in the UAE. The height of this tree is approximately 14.2 m with 4.2-m girth (Figure 1). Having such a large old tree in the hyperarid desert of the Arab Gulf region is a rare event, as the stressful conditions in the region often limit the growth of trees and human interference destruct big trees (Tourenq and Launay 2008). T. aphylla is one of the most drought-tolerant trees in the Arabian deserts. Since, the transpiration rate of this species is reported low (Davenport et al 1982), it can survive with very limited amount of water under dry and extremely hot conditions of the arid deserts of the UAE. It is one of the few trees that is able to grow on loose sand dunes and tolerate salinity and drought stresses. In addition, it has the ability to stabilize loose sand dunes. Under the very harsh desert environment, the key ecological functions of the large old trees are provision of a distinct microclimate (as these trees provide shade and help in lowering temperatures during hot weather) and beautifying landscapes. In addition, they have greater importance for THZ1 Hydrochloride integrity and biodiversity. In the current conservation scenario, the old trees are considered as critical organisms and ecological structures in forests, woodlands, savannas, agricultural, and urban environments (Le Roux et al 2014; Lindenmayer et al 2012). Recently, Blicharska and Mikusiński (2014) pointed out that large old trees easily awaken emotions, appeal to aesthetic sentiments, and are often perceived as important landmarks.
During our subsequent visit in the year 2015, we observed that for protecting this large old tree from destruction, the municipality concerned has installed a fence around it (Figure 2). Fencing could be an effective way to reduce damage to historical trees such as the one reported here. The elderly people living in this area revealed that earlier generations have seen the tree as big as it is today. However, it is important to determine the age of old trees by some accurate methods such as tree-ring dating. Local people mentioned that their ancestors used this tree as a shelter during the hot days and in celebrating their special events. Interestingly, the residents emphasized the cultural importance of this tree that links them with earlier generations. They recognize this tree as a vital part of their history and heritage, and stressed that this living monument should receive more attention as a heritage and cultural symbol. It is well-known that large old trees need a long time to develop old-growth characteristics; thus, their existence spans many human generations and eventually they become a historic link between the generations. Therefore, acknowledging people’s perceptions toward old trees could be critical for policy makers, as these trees are among the oldest and most complex organisms in their ecosystem and have great ecological and cultural significances.
Interestingly, the exceptional longevity of trees is an additional unique feature, which in some cases exceeds even thousands of years (Blicharska and Mikusiński 2014). In the literature, there are some old trees of bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) reported from the White Mountains of California, CA, USA whose lifetime has spanned the building of the pyramids, and certain olive trees planted in the Garden of Gethsemane that may date from the time of Christ. In Asia and Africa, trees such as peepal (Ficus religiosa) or banyan (Ficus benghalensis) are often referred in historical background, worshiped, and widely protected as a keystone resource. A Bo tree in Sri Lanka is known to be 2300 years old, under whose branches Buddha is said to have gained spiritual enlightenment. Similarly, an oak tree in southern Sweden is > 1000 years old (Blicharska and Mikusiński 2014).
Apart from government policies and legislations, there is a need to undertake a public awareness drive to preserve aesthetical, cultural, and ecological significance of large old trees and their conservation. For the UAE, recently Goumbook and its local partners have launched the “Give a Ghaf” program to raise public awareness about the Ghaf (P. cineraria) and its values, while encouraging people to plant them. Therefore, using native trees in urban landscaping would be a good option for conserving limited water resources in the UAE while it also gives a chance to have more old trees with time.

br Discussion In this nationwide surveillance study we

In this nationwide surveillance study, we demonstrated the distribution of the different genospecies of ACB-complex isolates and also showed the resistance and the carbapenemase gene distributions among these isolates. There were three dominant clusters of A. baumannii identified, which showed higher antimicrobial resistance rates for ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and ampicillin/sulbactam and were widely distributed around Taiwan hospitals. These major clones had ST2 and belonged to EU THZ1 Hydrochloride II.
Isolates of A. baumannii showed an increasing trend of resistance in Taiwan. TSAR-II in 2000 showed that only 2% of isolates were resistant to imipenem and the resistance rates for ciprofloxacin and amikacin were 69% and 63%, respectively. Resistance rates for imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin were significantly higher in TSAR-V isolates collected in 2006 than those of TSAR-II isolates (imipenem resistance 19.4% vs. 2%, p < 0.001; ciprofloxacin resistance 80.6% vs. 69%, p = 0.04; and amikacin resistance 75.4% vs. 63%, p = 0.04; respectively), which indicates the increasing difficulty of treating patients with ACB-complex infections in Taiwan. Distribution of different carbapenem resistant genes in CRAB isolates has been previously investigated. Other than blaOxA-51, Yang et al and Chen et al showed that blaOxA-23 was the major CHDL gene carried by CRAB isolates in their hospitals. Lu et al showed that blaOxA-24 and Lee et al showed that blaOxA-58 were the major CHDL genes in the CRAB isolates in their studies. However, in this nationwide surveillance of ACB-complex isolates, metallo-β-lactamase and CHDL genes other than bla were rarely found. Although not surprising, isolates with both blaOxA-23-like or blaOxA-24-like and blaOxA-51 genes showed higher carbapenem resistance, which is consistent with previous reports. Nevertheless, among the 26 CRAB isolates, only two had the blaOxA-23-like gene and two had the blaOxA-24-like gene, and there were no blaOxA-58-like, blaIMP, or blaVIM genes identified. In this study, there were three major clusters of related isolates circulating in Taiwan. These isolates were more resistant to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and ampicillin/sulbactam as well as tigecycline. Horizontal transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes and clonal spreading under antimicrobial selection could explain these observations. Our findings support clonal spreading as an important factor influencing antimicrobial resistant A. baumannii transmission, and this might be the cause of increased amikacin and ciprofloxacin resistance among CRAB isolates observed over the past few years.
Tigecycline is considered as an alternative antimicrobial agent for treating infections caused by CRAB. In this study, CRAB isolates showed tigecycline susceptibility of 69.2%. If an MIC cut point of 1 mg/L was applied, the tigecycline susceptibility rate of CRAB isolates drop to 15.4% (Table 4, Fig. 2B). Because the serum levels of tigecycline are low and mean concentrations are only 0.63 mg/L, our findings infer that tigecycline monotherapy should be used cautiously, especially in cases of severe infections, such as bloodstream infections. Furthermore, genospecies identification and MIC confirmation should be considered under these circumstances.
Our study provides the possible explanation that the increase of the multidrug resistant A. baumannii in Taiwan may be due to clonal spread. However, there are limitations in this study. First, since the TSAR program was a microbiology surveillance program, no clinical data were available. As such, we cannot analyze the clinical impact of different clusters of A. baumannii isolates, and most of the isolates were acquired from nonsterile site, so the impact of resistance on clinical practice should be interpreted cautiously. Second, although our previous study had showed that ISAba1-blaOxA51, gyrA mutation, and integron were associated with imipenem, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides resistance, resistance genes other than CHDLs, blaIMP, and blaVIM were not evaluated in this study. Thus, even though possible A. baumannii clonal spreading with higher resistance was identified, whether the same resistance mechanism was involved was not clear. Third, while we included nationwide isolates, including those from medical centers and regional hospitals, the number of isolates is still relatively small, and might not be representative of all situations in Taiwan. Further investigations with more isolates are needed.

Recent advances in nanostructured composite materials have been led

Recent advances in nanostructured composite materials have been led by the development of new synthetic methods, and the sonochemical one [12] has been proven to be a useful tool for generating novel materials [13]. In this THZ1 Hydrochloride sense, sonochemistry can be a new, economical and green method for the synthesis and decoration of metallic particles on various ceramic substrates. Ultrasonic irradiation can act on shape and size of the inorganic metal nanoparticles, thanks to the extreme conditions attained during bubble collapse, have been exploited to produce nanoscale metals, metal oxides, and nanocomposites [14]. The first report on the use of ultrasound for fabrication of noble metals was in 1987 by Gutierrez et al. [15], while for this work the experimental procedure is based on to the work of Tao et al. [16].
Starting from the very promising possibilities to use US to obtain metal nanoparticles and substrates decoration as well, sonochemistry represents a novel and interesting way to decorate the surface decoration of TiO2 substrates with M-NPs and MO, in our case copper for all the reasons mentioned above.
We proposed this method to decorate a commercial substrate of TiO2 in a previous work [17]. In that case, we wanted to prove the efficiency of the sonochemical route for TiO2 decoration with different metals, choosing as most interesting molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten and copper. TiO2 decorated with copper didn’t show good results in term of photocatalytic activity. However, several publications about the very good and promising properties of copper nanoparticles to modify TiO2, enhancing its photoactivity, in particular under solar and visible light, have been published in the recent years [18,19]. For this reason, we investigate here the influence of copper loading on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 catalysts. In addition, the distribution and morphology of metal and metal-oxides NPs on the TiO2 surface are studied for different amount of metal precursor used during the synthesis procedure.
As in the work mentioned above, the TiO2 substrate employed in the present contribution is commercial and micro-sized. Although TiO2-nanopowders exhibit the best performances, a micro-sized support is not dangerous for health, easier to handle, and more suitable for a surface decoration [20].
Samples of Cu-metal and metal-oxides decorated titania, prepared using high energy US, were synthesized, considering copper amounts in the range 1–75wt.%. Moreover, because of (i) the very few studies on the photocatalytic performance of Cu NPs in respect to his quantity and (ii) the need to find photocatalytic materials able to work under visible light, some tests on their photoactivity for the abatement of VOCs molecules in the gas phase were performed, investigating both the impact of the copper amount and the importance of the power of the irradiation. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based materials were tested though the degradation of acetone and acetaldehyde.
Acetone is one of the most common indoor air pollutants and its photocatalytic degradation has been extensively studied. For this reason, it is suitable to study the efficiency of different types of TiO2[21,22]. Different mechanisms can contribute to the overall acetone photo-oxidation reaction, and in all of them acetaldehyde is formed as by-product [23]. Moreover, both acetone and acetaldehyde are hydrophilic and polar pollutants that usually are present and ubiquitous in indoor environments.

Materials and methods
TiO2 (1077 by Kronos) is a commercial and micro-sized sample produced by Kronos® company. It consists of pure anatase having an average particles size of ∼110nm; the surface area is 12m2g−1 and it has a band gap of 3.2eV. The precursor compound for copper is CuCl2·2H2O (⩾99% Sigma Aldrich), which was purchased and used without further purification, as all the other reagents used for the preparation described below. The investigation on the photoactivity performance of each sample was performed using acetaldehyde (ACS Reagent, ⩾99.5% Sigma–Aldrich) or acetone (Chromasolv plus, for HPLC, ⩾99.9% Sigma–Aldrich) as reference pollutant molecules.