Tag Archives: TAPI-1

We found a total prevalence of of

We found a total prevalence of 18/120 (15 %) of DNA in the collected fecal samples (). The majority of the positive samples (10/120) were collected in Central Park West in Manhattan resulting in a prevalence of 17% for that park, while four positive samples were from Van Cortland Park in the Bronx, resulting in a prevalence of 12% (). Additionally, four -positive samples were found in Prospect Park in Brooklyn, resulting in a prevalence of 11% (). We were not able to obtain sequence data from one of the positive sample. Sequence analysis of 17 of the positive amplicons revealed 16 isolates of the zoonotic TAPI-1 A (94.1%) and one isolate of the dog-specific D genotype (5.9%). Other genotypes were not observed in this study. DNA from both parasites was not detected concurrently in any the samples collected. All the samples in our studies were found to be from domestic dogs (data not shown).
This study uncovered the prevalence of and infections in domestic dogs frequenting three popular and active public parks in New York City. Toxoplasmosis and giardiasis are serious public health concerns worldwide because and are zoonotic parasites. In the United States alone, it is estimated that 60 million individuals are infected with (CDC, 2015). Since dogs are intermediate hosts for , our data indicate environmental contamination with oocysts.
In conclusion, this study reveals and protozoan parasites in domestic dogs frequenting New York City parks. The finding of assemblage I and genotype A in these popular and frequently visited parks is noteworthy and has significant implications for public health, particularly for individuals with impaired immune system frequenting these parks as well as children who play in those parks. In both cases, thorough handwashing prior to food consumption is advisable. In the future, we will sample at different time frames and expand to other parks.
Conflict of interest statement

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank the Department of Biology and the School of Science at Manhattan College for financial support. The authors are also grateful to Drs. Steven Singer (Georgetown University, Washington D.C.) and Dr. Gustavo Arrizabalaga (Indiana School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN) for Giardia duodenalis and T. gondii genomic DNA, respectively. Preliminary results were presented as an Abstract at the 89th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Parasitologists, New Orleans, USA, 24th–27th July 2014.

Ducks are frequently infected by and without showing clinical signs and may serve as a carrier of spp. to other animals (). Hatcheries are a potential source of infection for 1-day-old chicks through environmental contamination, but it is uncertain whether vertical transmission occurs through the egg ().
Erythromycin, fluoroquinolones (FQ), gentamicin and tetracycline are effective treatments for disease due to spp., but careful use of antibiotics is required to reduce the risk of emergence of resistant strains, which could be transmitted to humans (). The resistance of spp. to tetracycline is commonly associated with the presence of the (O) gene, which could be transferred from resistant strains to sensitive strains (). Likewise, mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region () of , especially T86I, have been linked to the resistance of spp. to FQ with incidence of hypermutable phenotype in resistant strains to FQ (). The aim of this study was to provide information on antibiotic resistance of spp. in 1-day-old ducklings in Egypt.
A total of 150 faecal meconium samples (~1 g each) were collected in 9 mL Bolton broth (Oxoid) from 1-day-old commercial meat ducklings (e.g. Muscovy, Mallard). All samples were submitted to the Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Giza, for routine examination in 2011 and 2012. Isolation and biochemical identification of spp. were performed according to ISO 10272-1 using blood-free selective media (CCD agar and Karmali agar; Oxoid). Resistance against ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT), gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol (Oxoid) was determined using the disc diffusion method test conducted following the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

br Recently dynamic chest radiography using a flat panel

Recently, dynamic chest radiography using a flat panel detector (FPD) system with a large field of view was introduced for clinical use. This technique can provide sequential chest radiographs with high temporal resolution during respiration (17), and the TAPI-1 dose is much lower than that of CT. Also, whereas CT and MRI are performed in the supine or prone position, dynamic chest radiology can be performed in a standing or sitting position, which is physiologically relevant. To the best of our knowledge, no detailed study has analyzed diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing by using dynamic chest radiography.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing in a standing position in a health screening center cohort using dynamic chest radiography in association with participants\’ demographic characteristics.

Materials and Methods

Study Population

This cross-sectional study was approved by the institutional review board, and all the participants provided written informed consent. From May 2013 to February 2014, consecutive 220 individuals who visited the health screening of our hospital and met the following inclusion criteria for the study were recruited: age greater than 20 years, scheduled for conventional chest radiography, and underwent pulmonary function test. Patients with any of the following criteria were excluded: pregnant (n  =  0), potentially pregnant or lactating (n  =  0), refused to provide informed consent (n  =  22), had incomplete datasets of dynamic chest radiography (n  =  3), had incomplete datasets of pulmonary function tests (n  =  1), could not follow tidal breathing instructions (eg, holding breath or taking a deep breath) (n  =  18), or their diaphragmatic motion could not be analyzed by the software described next (n  =  4). Thus, a total of 172 participants (103 men, 69 women; mean age 56.3 ± 9.8 years; age range 36–85 years) were finally included in the analysis ( Fig 1). The data from 47 participants of this study population were analyzed in a different study (under review). The heights and weights of the participants were measured, and the body mass index (BMI, weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters) was calculated.

Figure 1. Flow diagram of the study population.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (83 K)Download as PowerPoint slide

Imaging Protocol of Dynamic Chest Radiology (“Dynamic X-Ray Phrenicography”)

Posteroanterior dynamic chest radiography (“dynamic X-ray phrenicography”) was performed using a prototype system (Konica Minolta, Inc., Tokyo, Japan) composed of an FPD (PaxScan 4030CB, Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT, USA) and a pulsed X-ray generator (DHF-155HII with Cineradiography option, Hitachi Medical Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). All participants were scanned in the standing position and instructed to breathe normally in a relaxed way without deep inspiration or expiration (tidal breathing). The exposure conditions were as follows: tube voltage, 100 kV; tube current, 50 mA; pulse duration of pulsed X-ray, 1.6 ms; source-to-image distance, 2 m; additional filter, 0.5 mm Al + 0.1 mm Cu. The additional filter was used to filter out soft X-rays. The exposure time was approximately 10–15 seconds. The pixel size was 388 × 388 µm, the TAPI-1 matrix size was 1024  × 768, and the overall image area was 40 × 30 cm. The gray-level range of the images was 16,384 (14 bits), and the signal intensity was proportional to the incident exposure of the X-ray detector. The dynamic image data, captured at 15 frames/s, were synchronized with the pulsed X-ray. The pulsed X-ray prevented excessive radiation exposure to the subjects. The entrance surface dose was approximately 0.3–0.5 mGy.

For kinetics studies Nevirapine M diluted in either LC

For kinetics studies Nevirapine (4 μM) diluted in either LC-MS grade water, 10 mM phosphate buffer pH 5.8, 10 mM phosphate buffer pH 8 or WWTW effluent from the Zeekoegat plant was combined in equal volumes with NaOCl diluted in either of the aforementioned solvents (to yield 2 μM Nevirapine and 20 μM NaOCl) and stirred at room temperature (20 °C + ?1 °C). Aliquots were taken from the reaction at 10 s intervals and combined with NH4Cl to give a two-fold molar excess with respect to NaOCl. Samples were analysed by UHPLC-QTOF immediately after the last time course was sampled. An external 6 point calibration of Nevirapine in the matching reaction solvent was utilised for quantitative purposes and analysed in MassHunter Quant (Agilent).
2.3. LC-UV analysis of chlorination reactions
2.4. Large scale preparation of nevirapine chlorination reaction products
1.8 g of pharmaceutical Nevirapine (Aspen) tablets were crushed and resuspended in 25% HCl. The solution was clarified by centrifugation (3000 rpm for 30 min) and the supernatant containing approximately 1 g of Nevirapine was collected. The yield of this TAPI-1 extraction was determined by UHPLC-QTOF analysis as compared to an external calibration curve.
Acid extracted Nevirapine was diluted in either 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 8) or 10 mM Phosphate buffer (pH 5.8) to 1.5 mg/mL, 0.4 M NaOCl was added daily for a period of four days and the reactions were monitored by UHPLC-QTOF analysis. Upon reaching the maximum diversity of reaction products, the mixtures were dried by rotary evaporation (Buchi, Switzerland) at 40 °C under vacuum. The total basic and acidic reactions were diluted in dimethyl sulphoxide to 1 mg/mL for toxicity studies.
The dried and crushed acidic reaction mixture was dissolved in water and fractioned by centrifugation into aqueous and non-aqueous fractions. These were dried, as before, and diluted in dimethyl sulphoxide to 1 mg/mL for toxicity studies.
Both the acidic and basic reactions were separated using preparative chromatography. 100 mg of each reaction in water (100 mg/mL) was loaded onto a Biotage SNAP Ultra C18 (12 g) column and separated on a gradient of acetonitrile and water (both with 0.1% formic acid) over 30 min at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. Fractions were collected and dried by vacuum centrifugation (Martin Christ RVC 2-33IR) at 2 mBar, 40 °C, 900 rpm for 12 h. Dried fractions were resuspended in DMSO (1 mg/mL) and subjected to toxicity and activity screening.
2.5. Environmental sample collection and extraction
Grab samples were collected from all the major rivers and lakes (man-made) in South Africa as part of a multi-year water quality study. Samples were collected in “virgin” borosilicate Schott bottles and transported to the laboratory at room temperature. Sampling locations were chosen based on proximities to wastewater treatment works (WWTW) and human settlements. To provide a comprehensive picture of a specific body of water, multiple samples were taken from different locations in a sampling site. Samples were stored at ?20 °C until extraction after which extracts were stored at ?20 °C until analysis.
500 mL of each environmental sample was filtered using a 1 μm glass-fibre syringe driven filter (Pall) and extracted using the Smart Prep Extraction (Horizon, Salem, USA); an automated offline solid phase extraction instrument. Briefly 6 cc Oasis HLB, 500 mg (Waters) cartridges were conditioned with 4 mL methanol followed by 6 mL of HPLC Grade water. 500 mL of sample TAPI-1 was then introduced at a flow rate of 10 mL/min after which cartridges were dried under nitrogen for three minutes. Cartridges were then eluted twice with 5 mL of methanol and dried under a gentle stream of nitrogen to 500 μL. All extractions were performed at 18 °C (+-2 °C).
2.6. UHPLC QTOF analysis
Environmental concentrations of Nevirapine were reported previously and national samples were analysed by UHPLC-QTOF in full scan, “auto MS” and “all ions” mode. Similarly, chlorination reactions of Nevirapine at varying concentrations of NaOCl and pH (after 1 min) were analysed in order to characterise the resulting reaction products. In addition to these, the large scale chlorination reactions were monitored by UHPLC-QTOF.

Another possible explanation for low

Another possible explanation for low level of confidence in discussing specific nutrition related issues is that some of these issues might be perceived by the midwives as out of their scope of knowledge and practice, and should be referred to dietitians who are the experts in the area of nutrition. However, as was identified from midwives’; comments in this study, referral to dietitians (for issues other than gestational diabetes and to a lesser extent obesity) is limited, mainly due to limited access to dietitians even if the referral was made. This is a health system issue that needs to be addressed, so midwives can confidently refer pregnant women with nutrition education needs out of their scope of knowledge to dietitians as required. Given the rising rates of obesity, it TAPI-1 is vital that midwives are equipped to provide nutrition education and support to all pregnant women. Our study identified health professionals such as dietitians as the most frequently used source of nutrition information for midwives, therefore, (with their current limited access to pregnant women), dietitians could contribute to enhancing maternal and foetal health by educating midwives via the provision of regular education sessions, updates and resources.
Midwives’; inadequate level of pregnancy general nutrition knowledge (in several areas) and moderate to low levels of confidence in discussing general and specific nutrition related issues observed in this study could reflect that they had not received adequate nutrition information or education about these issues. Indeed, in this study, only half of the midwives reported receiving nutrition education during midwifery education or during practice. Midwives need to be equipped with adequate nutrition education both while obtaining their basic qualifications and during practice, if mesentary are expected to discuss healthy nutrition with pregnant women as outlined in the new Antenatal Care Guidelines (model one12 and two13), and fulfil their role in improving the health of mothers and future generations.
A number of limitations of this study are identified. Not all Australian midwives had the opportunity to respond to the survey as not all Australian midwives are members of the ACM. The completion rate was 6.9% of the 4770 midwives but the number of respondents (n = 329) was very close to the estimated required sample size (n = 356) and provided sufficient power to detect statistical significance. The response rate was also comparable to previous research conducted with this group.38 Online surveys are known to have a significantly lower response rate compared to paper surveys.39 The frame of convenience sampling of the study has some inherent limitations as midwives who chose to undertake the survey might have been more interested, motivated or knowledgeable about nutrition than the rest of the population. Recall bias cannot be totally excluded, especially in terms of receiving nutrition information TAPI-1 or education during midwifery education, as three quarters of the responding midwives were aged 41 and older, and may have undertaken their midwifery education a long time ago. Some midwives also reported difficulty in listing everything they included in their advice. Taking in consideration the feedback from the piloting of the survey (that the survey was long), the knowledge part was kept short and general. It might have not been reflective of all aspects of nutrition during pregnancy.