Tag Archives: TAPI-1

We found that SpGlpO interacts with

We found that SpGlpO interacts with a wide range of host glycans with the strongest binding to those that are commonly found as O-linked glycans of protein glycosylation and as lactoceramides/gangliosides. In addition, asialo-GM1 contains the core GalNAcβ1-4Gal suggesting that SpGlpO is an alternative binding partner for these gangliosides, with this interaction proving important in mediating pneumococcal adherence to nasopharyngeal cells. Given these findings, we propose that SpGlpO enhances pneumococcal colonization of the nasopharynx through its direct binding to host glycoconjugates. In this context, the use of oligosaccharides to block pneumococcal adherence to mucosal surfaces presents an attractive prospect for therapy and disease prevention, as demonstrated for LNnT using a rabbit model of pneumonia and bacteremia and an infant rat model of colonization (Idanpaan-Heikkila et al., 1997).
GlcNAcβ1-3Gal is a core structure of gangliosides, which are predominantly found on neuronal surfaces. Previous work has demonstrated a ganglioside-mediated colonization of the nasopharynx and TAPI-1 by pneumococci (van Ginkel et al., 2003). We previously reported that an SpGlpO mutant showed decreased adherence to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (Mahdi et al., 2012), although a detailed mechanism for this was not determined. This study suggests that the binding of SpGlpO to different gangliosides, like asialo-GM1, could facilitate attachment to brain cells, providing an alternative mechanism for pneumococcal attachment to brain tissue. Interestingly, this would suggest an additional role for SpGlpO, along with its hydrogen peroxide producing cytotoxic effects, in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal meningitis. Moreover, the binding of SpGlpO to gangliosides opens up the likelihood that such interactions play a major role in the pathogenesis of otitis media, as was previously shown in chinchilla tracheal epithelia (Tong et al., 1999), and in gerbils where CNS infection occurred after pneumococcal otitis media (Muffat-Joly et al., 1994).
Immune-mediated clearance of pneumococci from the nasopharynx involves both antibody-dependent and antibody-independent mechanisms (Goldblatt et al., 2005; Malley et al., 2007; van Rossum et al., 2005). Antibody-independent clearance is thought to involve an IL-17A-mediated T-cell response, resulting in the recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection and subsequent clearance of colonization (Lu et al., 2008; Malley et al., 2006). Consistent with these reports, intranasal immunization of mice with SpGlpO or SpGlpO-adjunct elicited significant total serum IgG, negligible TAPI-1 salivary IgA, and more IFN-γ and IL-17A responses compared with LTB controls. The finding that immunization with SpGlpO did not completely block colonization could be advantageous in the context of reducing colonization to levels that significantly impacts on overall pneumococcal translocation to deeper host tissues, while intra- and inter-species competition in the nasopharynx is maintained at asymptomatic levels. This is also likely to result in reduction in transmission from carriers to new hosts. Our previous work with WCH16 and WCH43 showed that stable colonization of the nasopharynx of CD1 (Swiss) mice was firmly established over a 48- to 96-h period, with optimal and uniform colonization at 72h post-infection (Mahdi et al., 2012). This finding led us to choose 72h after challenge as the ideal time-point for mouse sacrifice to determine the level of nasopharyngeal colonization.
In summary, we provide evidence for a direct contribution of SpGlpO to colonization of the nasopharynx through its binding to host glycoconjugates, and show that intranasal immunization of mice with SpGlpO elicited significant protection against subsequent nasal colonization. We conclude that SpGlpO warrants consideration for inclusion in an optimal, multi-component protein vaccine formulation that can provide robust, serotype-independent protection against nasopharyngeal colonization and all forms of invasive pneumococcal disease.

br Introduction Sexual health medical school

Introduction
Sexual health medical school education is greatly lacking in the United States [1-6]. In fact, 44% of U.S. medical schools currently do not have a formal sexual health curriculum [7], and the curricula that do exist vary widely [4,8-12]. A study by Solursh et al. in 2003 surveyed 101 U.S. medical schools and found that the majority of them provided only 3–10 hours of sexual health education, and less than half offered clinical programs that included a focus on treating patients with sexual problems and dysfunctions [3]. As recently as 2011, a survey of medical school deans across the country indicated that the median time dedicated to teaching lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-related content in the entire curriculum was 5 hours, with one-third of schools reporting zero hours during clinical years [4]. Reasons cited for this deficit in sexual health education include lack of instructional time, perceived lack of relevance to course content by faculty members, and lack of professional development on sexual health topics [1]. This deficit is alarming considering the sexual health needs of our patients and the serious negative consequences of poor sexual health [13-21]. Without adequate training in sexual health, medical students and physicians will be ill-equipped to address these important concerns [22,23].
To address this curricular deficit as well as the barrier of limited curricular time, we developed a Sexual Health Selective (SHS) for first year medical students. The SHS was developed and implemented by one medical student and one faculty champion and was offered as an optional TAPI-1 outside of regular medical school education. Furthermore, a number of the guidelines from the 2012 Summit on Medical School Education in Sexual Health [24] were utilized, including: (i) introducing sexual health education early in medical education training, (ii) using varied teaching methods in order to better engage students, (iii) using a multidisciplinary, biopsychosocial team approach, (iv) fostering collaboration with student and faculty champion(s), and (v) evaluating the efficacy of the curriculum.

Aims
The primary aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of implementing a 1-week sexual health curriculum. Feasibility was measured by limited-efficacy testing and participant acceptability of the SHS [25]. Specifically, it was hypothesized that SHS participants would demonstrate increased knowledge and more open attitudes toward sexual health after completion of the selective, that these changes would persist long-term (i.e., for at least 3 months), and that participants would report strong acceptance of the SHS.

Methods

Main Outcome Measures

Results

Discussion
The SHS curriculum demonstrated feasibility potential in both limited-efficacy testing and acceptability measures. Limited-efficacy testing suggested that the SHS was associated with more open attitudes and more accurate knowledge about sexual health among participants. After the SHS and 3 months later, participants\’ attitudes increased in openness, and accurate knowledge increased on about half of the survey questions. These findings are consistent with the existing literature on medical school sexual health education [27-29].
A major strength of this curriculum is that Animalia was developed and implemented by a medical student with guidance and support from a primary faculty champion. The strength of the collaboration developed was such that two faculty champions (SF and JR) and two new first year medical students volunteered to take the lead on implementing the SHS the following year. At the time of publication, the second implementation of the SHS had been completed under the guidance of this new leadership group. The second version of the curriculum maintained several key elements of the original curriculum (see Table 1). In addition, it incorporated several new presentations and discussions, including topics such as sexual function, erectile dysfunction, biases in health care for LGBTI patients, psychological concerns of patients with infertility, the concept of sex-negativity, and myths about virginity. A small, informal survey of participants in the second year of the SHS implementation revealed that all sessions were rated as “Good” or “Excellent” by the respondents (n = 3), and no sessions were rated as “Fair” or “Poor.” Faculty champions reported minimal time burden in the second year of implementation. Student champions reported minimal time burden for curriculum development but moderate time burden for schedule coordination of SHS speakers. Thus, faculty champions have secured an education administrator to help with speaker scheduling for the third implementation of the SHS. We believe that student–faculty collaborative effort was foundational to the success of the SHS and is a potential first step toward addressing the lack of sexual health curricula in medical schools. This is consistent with the 2012 guideline from the Summit on Medical School Education in Sexual Health [24], which encouraged collaboration between student and faculty champion(s).

This said it may be that the greatest benefit

This said, it may be that the greatest benefit of light-intensity activity for the TAPI-1 does not manifest in the acute setting, but rather over a longer period of time following protection from repeated glucose excursions. However, longer term trials investigating whether light-intensity activity can protect against cognitive decline are lacking. In one study of dementia patients in a nursing home setting, a 9-month tai chi intervention successfully preserved cognitive function relative to a control group who performed simple handicrafts [54]. However, tai chi may be different to other forms of light-intensity activity, as it requires memorization of complex moves, making it difficult to generalize to other forms of light-intensity activity. A recent meta-analysis examined randomized controlled trials of walking interventions in sedentary older adults with executive function as an outcome, showing a small overall benefit but only for those without cognitive impairment [55]. However, low adherence in those with cognitive impairment may have confounded results and the intensity of all walking interventions was not reported and likely contained a mix of light and moderate intensity interventions.

Conclusion
There is a clear need for effective and feasible intervention strategies to help preserve brain health and cognition in older adults. Evidence-based public health messages have emphasized MVPA for its ability to improve cognitive function. Despite this, older adults spend very little time doing MVPA on a daily basis. The greatest proportion of time is spent in activities of a lower intensity, which may have implications for glycemic control and ultimately brain health. The take home message is that reducing and breaking up sitting time with intermittent light-intensity activity may play a role in maintaining glycemic control and optimal brain health. While structured MVPA retains distinct physiological adaptations important for improving cognitive function, reducing and replacing sedentary behavior with intermittent light-intensity activity may be important in forestalling cognitive decline. However, the evidence-base supporting this idea is currently lacking and should be a target for future research. Such evidence would provide an additional option, alongside structured MVPA, in the arsenal of targeted interventions, policies, and programme development aimed at preventing dementia.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) Grant 1062338 and by the Victorian Government\’s Operational Infrastructure Support Program. M.J.W. was supported by the University of Western Australia and the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia. P.C.D. was supported by Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia. M.S.G. was supported by the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute Flack Fellowship. K.A.E. was supported by the University of Melbourne. P.A.G was supported by a NHMRC and Australian Research Council (ARC) joint Dementia Research Development Fellowship (NHMRC-ARC APP1103311). D.J.G. was supported by a NHMRC Principal Research Fellowship (APP1080914) and D.W.D. was supported by a NHMRC Senior Research Fellowship (NHMRC APP1078360).

Introduction
The NIA-AA criteria state that diagnostic tests for Alzheimer\’s disease (AD), such as MRI and biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), should be used “when available and deemed appropriate by the clinician” [1]. Information on when to use which test or how to involve patients and their families in this decision is not specified, leaving room for broad practice variation in diagnostic testing. At the same time, there has been a shift toward earlier diagnosis of AD, which has led to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD being regarded as a formal diagnosis in the AD spectrum [2]. A diagnosis of AD or MCI may have great social, emotional, and practical implications for patients and their families, whereas at present, there is still no cure available. On the other hand, an early diagnosis could have the advantage for patients and their families to be more involved in management decisions and planning of care and help them prepare for the future [3]. Moreover, it may meet their needs to minimize uncertainty about the nature of the patient\’s symptoms and what may lay ahead [4]. However, test results do not always offer patients and their families the certainty or reassurance they were seeking for [5]. Results of different diagnostic tests may be equivocal or conflicting, making it challenging for clinicians to interpret these results and discuss them with the patient, especially in the context of MCI [6].

TAPI-1 TBI is classified into two broad types primary and

TBI is classified into two broad types: primary and secondary. Primary lesion results from direct effect of trauma. These include hematomas (contusions, epidural, subdural and subarachnoid) and traumatic axonal injuries[3].
TBI can have a progressively worsening course and an early diagnosis and timely management are critical to its treatment[17]. In such cases, CT scan is acknowledged as the investigation of choice since it rapidly and precisely recognizes intracranial hemorrhage including extra-axial hemorrhage (epidural, subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage) as well as intra-axial hemorrhage (cortical contusion, intraparenchymal hematoma and shear injury). It also identifies the evolution of hemorrhage and indicators of secondary injury. Due to its quick results, easy availability and sensitivity to hemorrhage, CT scan is now also being used to predict patients’ outcome and mortality[3]. Most centers routinely perform CT scan in patients with moderate or severe head trauma, while debate continues for its utilization in mild head trauma[18–20].
The phenomenon of the increase in volume of post TBI lesions has been cited in literature under various terms such as traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage[7], PHI[8], or hemorrhagic progression of a contusion[21]. We used the term PHI as it encompasses all types of traumatic hemorrhagic TAPI-1 lesions. Our study has shown that PHI is evident in more than 50% patients with TBI in subsequent CT scan performed 12 h after the initial incident, most often in EDH and IPC, and that 65.6% of them were consequently required decompressive surgery. In an earlier study on 37 comatose patients, Servadei et al. identified that 59.5% of their patients had demonstrated PHI on serial CT scans 12 h after admission that required surgical evacuation[22]; 31.8% of these patients had previously been operated upon and had developed a new hemorrhagic, non-contiguous lesion.
In a study involving 142 patients, Oertel et al. studied progressive hemorrhagic lesions after TBI[8]. They concluded that PHI was found in 42.3% patients, most frequently occurring in those with IPC, when the initial CT scan was performed within (2.0 ± 1.6) h and follow-up CT scans were obtained after (6.9 ± 3.6) h. Most frequent progression in lesions was evident in IPC (51.0%) while 6.6% patients with PHI underwent surgery after the second CT scan.
Narayan and his associates conducted a prospective study and reported that 50% of the patients who were presented with hemorrhagic lesions 2 mL or larger, suffered augmentation of their initial lesions on follow-up CT scan done 24 h of injury[7]. They also demonstrated that larger lesions were inclined to show more increase in size with time, together with a greater possibility of clinical impact.
Another study conducted on traumatic SAH reported PHI in 58.9% subjects, most often 12–24 h after initial CT scan, with the initial scan done within approximately 1.3 h of trauma[23]. Another study conducted by Servadei et al.[24], showed CT evolution after traumatic SAH and demonstrated PHI in 66% patients. In a retrospective research, Alahmadi and his co-workers assessed patients with IPC who had been admitted in wards for observation and conservative management[25]. They noticed significant progression in 45% subjects, defining them as 30% or more increase in contusion size on CT scan; subsequent decompressive surgery was performed in 19%.
We found in our study that PHI can occur with both severe (GCS ≤ 8) as well as mild/moderate (GCS > 8) head injury; the larger the initial lesion is, the greater risk of its progression is. Sifri et al.[26], concluded that hemorrhagic progression of contusion can happen after mild head injury as well, with almost half patients showing augmentation in the initial lesion on follow-up CT scan.

Conflict of interest statement

Introduction
Proximal humeral fractures account for 4%–5% of all fractures, involving mainly the elderly population (> 60 years), particularly women. Many authors have estimated an exponential increase of these fractures in the next few years, which would have a considerable impact on social services and health budgets, as they severely limit patients\’ independence in daily life.

This study will focus on the following three aspects

This study will focus on the following three aspects:

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

Conclusions
This investigation evaluated PM10 removal efficiency of roadside greenbelts by assessing three different vegetation configurations. We also proposed the optimal vegetation structure of greenbelts for each grade road. The results indicated that all the three kinds of greenbelts can reduce the footpath PM10 concentration by 7–15% under complex meteorological conditions. The composite vegetation structure of shrubs and small trees (about 2–4.5m in height) might be most suitable for arterial roads or heavy traffic roads. The stratified vegetation structure of trees, shrubs and grass may be best for sub-arterial roads or medium traffic volume roads as these plants not only produce numerous ecological benefits but also provide a pleasant landscape for residents. Parallel tree stands can be cost-effective for branch roads or light traffic roads. The PM10 removal percentage of greenbelts showed a significant negative correlation with shelterbelt porosity (R2=0.83). Relative humidity had a greater effect than temperature or wind speed on PM10 removal efficiency of greenbelts. Additionally, the ecological benefits of greenbelts could be better improved by configuration with more evergreen vegetation and high tolerant species.
The results provided useful information for urban decision makers or planners. However, this TAPI-1 investigation was only performed in open street environments. Further work should focus on the ecological effects of greenbelts in areas with higher density construction or within deep canyons, as well as the effect mechanism of related parameters, such as aspect ratio (W/H), pollutant types and concentrations, vegetation types and seasonal changes, wind speed and direction, and some other meteorological factors.

Acknowledgements
This research was sponsored by the National Science and Technology Supporting Program (No. 2013BAJ02B0102) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Program No. 2013PY133). We are especially appreciative of TAPI-1 the suggestion and language polishing services provided by Dr. Elizabeth Lord in the University of Toronto. We also thank Wuhan Iron and Steel (Group) Corporation for providing assistance and experimental conditions.

Introduction
The link between the environment and our well-being is robustly established, with an emphasis placed on nature\’s benefits over urban locales (Bowler et al., 2010; Beute and de Kort, 2014; Beyer et al., 2014; Pasenen et al., 2014). Yet, even when encouraged to do so, people often do not use available nature resources in need of cognitive or emotional restoration (Eriksson and Nordlund, 2013; Herzog et al., 2002).
Wilkie and Stavridou (2013) proposed a possible explanation for this lack of engagement with nature in these circumstances. They found the interaction between an individual\’s environmental preference, which Facultative heterochromatin considered representative of place identity, and environment type influenced judgements of the potential for directed attention restoration to occur. Specifically, persons who preferred nature judged the restoration potential of incongruent urban locations lower than for nature settings congruent with their preference, while those with urban preferences perceived equivalent opportunities for restoration in both congruent urban and incongruent nature environments. Wilkie and Stavridou concluded the variations in perceived restoration potential due to this congruence effect may explain when nature locations are not always chosen when in need of restoration; and speculated persons with an urban preference do not seek nature because they perceive the city as restorative. This preliminary ‘congruence effect’ finding also reinforced the importance of considering individual-level person-place factors in studies of restorative environments (Smith et al., 2011; Jun et al., 2012).

br Methods Three of the authors S S and S

Methods
Three of the authors (S1, S2 and S3, aged 31–43years), who are experienced subjects in psychophysical evaluation of peripheral vision, participated in the first set of measurements. A second set of measurement was performed on one of the author (S1) and in two more subjects (S4 and S5, aged 27 and 28years) who were naïve to the purpose of the study and were inexperienced in performing psychophysical measurements. All subjects had normal visual function and no ocular diseases. S1, S3 and S4 were emmetropic while S2 and S5 were myopic (−2.50DS and −3.00 DS respectively) and were corrected with soft contact lenses. The study protocol adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki, approved by the regional ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from the subjects.

Stimuli and apparatus
For both peripheral resolution cut-off and TAPI-1 sensitivity evaluations, the stimulus was a sinewave grating enveloped in a Gaussian window of 1.6° standard deviation. As the measurements were made in the horizontal visual field meridian, the grating was oriented obliquely at either 45° or 135° to avoid bias towards certain orientations (Venkataraman, Winter, Rosén, & Lundström, 2016). For the moving stimuli, the drift was produced by dynamically altering the phase of the sinewave within the stationary Gaussian envelope; the stimulus thereby stimulated the same retinal area independent of whether it was moving or stationary. The temporal drift was quantified in terms of the number of grating-cycles passing a certain retinal location per second (cps or Hz). The direction of movement was always towards the fovea. A Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor was used to determine the eccentric optical corrections based on the second order Zernike values. All psychophysical measurements were performed with appropriate trial lenses to correct for these eccentric refractive errors.
A high contrast Maltese cross was used as an external foveal fixation target for the right eye to control the measurement angle. Additionally, the fixation stability was monitored using a Tobii X-30 eye tracker. The subject was seated 2m from the foveal fixation target and the monitor used to present the stimuli. The monitor was an analogue cathode-ray-tube monitor (Nokia 446Xpro) driven by a Linux PC with a 10-bit NVIDIA graphic card. It was calibrated to give a linear response in luminance with the mean luminance of the stimuli set to 51.5cd/m2. The entire range of the luminance table (0–103cd/m2) was used to present stimuli for the high contrast resolution cut-off measurements. Due to the insufficient number of displayable low-contrast stimuli to estimate the CSF (even with the high-end 10-bit graphic card), we redefined the gamma curve of the monitor to display a narrower range of luminance values in smaller steps. The contrast sensitivity measurements could thereby utilize the central 1/8th (luminance between 45 and 58cd/m2) of the original color look up table interpolated to 10-bit resolution.
The stimuli set for resolution acuity cut-off consisted of gratings corresponding to 0.0–1.8 logMAR (75 levels equidistant in log-space), which is equivalent to spatial frequencies of 30–0.5 cycles per degree (cpd). For contrast sensitivity measurements, stimulus contrast ranged between 12.5% and 0.4%, corresponding to a contrast sensitivity of 8–256 (64 levels equidistant in log-space). The extent and spatial frequency of the stimuli were scaled to compensate for the spectacle magnification: M=1/(1−aF) where a is the vertex distance from the trial lens to the eye and F is the spherical equivalent of the lenses. Each stimulus was presented for 500ms accompanied by an auditory cue. The generation and presentation of the stimuli and the implementation of the psychophysical algorithms were carried out in Matlab and Psychtoolbox (Brainard, 1997; Pelli, 1997). In the 2-alternative forced choice procedure, the subjects identified the orientation of the gratings and responded with a keypad. No feedback was given about the correctness of the response. A Bayesian adaptive approach was used to choose the successive stimuli and to calculate the final threshold (Kontsevich & Tyler, 1999; Rosén et al., 2011). A guess rate of 50% and a lapse rate of 5% were set. The threshold estimation consisted of 50 trials and took about 2min.

Figure a is a typical ultrasound display during breast

Figure 1a is a typical ultrasound display during breast examination; it TAPI-1 consists of an ultrasound image and the corresponding image annotation. The annotation is used to register the image location with respect to the breast (American College of Radiology [ACR] 2011). Because the follow-up diagnosis, evaluation and treatment are performed on the basis of the stored annotation, it is crucial that the annotations be accurate and complete. The stored annotation is also very important for surgery. For women with large tumors, such as a malignant lesion located across different quadrants, mastectomy is usually recommended (American Cancer Society [ACS] 2014). As illustrated in Figure 1a, there are two parts to the annotation, a graphic pictogram and a textual sequence. In the graphic pictogram, the circle represents the breast region. The irregular part next to the circle represents the arm, which is used to indicate the laterality (left or right) of the breast. The arrow is the probe icon, which represents the probe location. The arrow direction is the probe direction, and the movable arrow can be manipulated by the operator to reflect the current location of the ultrasound image. Most commonly, a trackball on the ultrasound machine is employed to manipulate the position of the probe icon relative to the breast marker region. There are three types of breast marker, as illustrated in Figure 1b. The operator can choose a suitable pictogram to annotate the image according to the image location. The spatial information is also indicated in the textual sequence. In Figure 1a, ‘L’ means it is the left breast, ‘3’ represents the 3 o\’clock radial direction and ‘4’ indicates that it is 4 cm to the nipple.
During breast examination, when one image is useful for diagnosis, a series of complex hand motions need to be performed to annotate the image (Jackson and Chenal TAPI-1 2006; Kuzara and Brown 2006). The operator first freezes the ultrasound image using the freeze button on the ultrasound machine and then the changes the probe icon position according to the estimation. Finally, the textual sequence is typed using the keyboard. In the hospital, patient care and productivity are the main concerns. However, this manual annotation method causes a variety of issues.
One issue arises from the complex manual annotation procedure. The aforementioned actions are repeated for every ultrasound image and are time consuming (Entrekin 2010). The annotation takes more time than the breast scanning procedure, especially for new staff with little experience. In China, the clinical practice guideline recommends that there are two operators in each breast ultrasound examination (Chinese Medical Association 2004). One manipulates the ultrasound machine to scan the breast, and the other records the image and annotates it. This method can effectively decrease examination time, but Multiforked chromosome is obviously a waste of human resources in health care institutions. In addition, the highly repetitive annotation procedure is also fatigue to the operator.
Another problem caused by the manual annotation method is subjective registration of the image location, which is set according to the estimation of the probe location relative to the breast by the operator. Manual estimation depends on the operator\’s training and experience and may lead to inaccurate results or even errors. Furthermore, different operators may annotate images in their own way, which can cause inconsistency in image recording (Brandli 2007). For example, as illustrated in Figure 1a, some operators may type the textual sequence near the breast marker region, whereas others may type it on the ultrasound image. The inconsistent ultrasound images can cause difficulties in follow-up image processing or statistical analysis (Cupples et al. 2004). In addition, as also illustrated in Figure 1a, the 2-D annotation cannot display all spatial information in 3-D space, such as the probe tilt angle. This can also cause problems in downstream evaluation and treatment. On the basis of the incomplete spatial information, different clinicians may make different judgments on the image location in 3-D space.

The role of macrophages in

The role of macrophages in the inflammatory infiltrate associated to SCC was not clear, since they were more evident in the deeper areas of the tumor and not in places where there was epidermis ulceration. In the literature, differentiated population###http://www.surface-antigen.com/image/1-s2.0-S1607551X1630153X-gr3.jpg####s of macrophages may have anti or pro-tumor action, because they produce different cytokines profiles and express different surface receptors. Several factors related to the tumor\’s microenvironment may activate macrophages and direct them to a M1 or M2 profile, according to published studies (Yuan, Chen, & Yang, 2008). Tumors tend to have a predominance of macrophages with M2 phenotype, induced by the microenvironment cytokines profile, which are generally anti-inflammatory, such as IL-10. These macrophages would be inefficient in activating a cytotoxic type immune response, which is efficient against tumor cells. Therefore, the M2 would stimulate angiogenesis and changes in the extracellular matrix, interesting aspects for the invasion and metastasis in more aggressive tumors (Guruvayoorappan, 2008). In the present study, the antibody used for immunostaining of macrophages was MCA874G, which has affinity in binding to calprotectin, a protein present in young macrophages. The same is used as a marker for inflammatory diseases and participates in processes such as tumorigenesis, apoptosis and cellular homeostasis, as well as responses mediated by Th1 TAPI-1 in immune and immune-pathological reactions (Dhas, Bhat, & Gane, 2012). It would be important to evaluate in future studies what is the predominant phenotype of macrophages present in SCC, in order to understand better their more invasive biological behavior.
The second most commonly found cell type in SCC in the present study were lymphocytes. They did not show significant differences between groups SCCd and SCCu, but it had greater immunodetection in SCCd group (Fig. A.2.D). Some studies highlight the presence of lymphocytes associated to tumor inflammatory infiltrate, which may indicate a protective response or a cytotoxic activity against the tumor. Currently, there are studies with neoplasias in humans that report the presence of T cells acting in favor of malignant tumor development (Nzula, Going, & Stott, 2003). Malignant neoplasias seem to suppress antitumor response of Th1 lymphocytes in tissues (Satyam et al., 2011). This anergy of T lymphocytes may also be related to the deficiency of MHC-1 molecules in the tumor\’s microenvironment, induced by some immuno-suppressor cytokines, such as IL-10 (Th2 response). These aspects facilitate tumor progression (Matsuda et al., 1994). Furthermore, in future studies, it would also be interesting to evaluate the different types of T lymphocytes (CD4 and CD8, Treg), as well as pro and anti-tumor cytokines, in order to better elucidate the activity of these lymphocytes in the tumor\’s microenvironment.
Plasma cells had a low number in both SCC groups. Their activation takes place by the interaction between cells presenting antigen and TCD4+lymphocytes, which in a standard response would lead to the production of antibodies by activated plasma cells. The profile of Th1 cytokines is one of the activators of this cell type (Murphy, Travers, & Walport, 2008).

Conclusion

Conflict of interest

Acknowledgements
FAPESP – Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Process number 2011/14232-5). The authors wish to acknowledge Mrs. Francisca de Assis Ardisson for her histotechnical assistance.

Introduction
Administration of antimicrobials to chickens at therapeutic and sub-therapeutic levels has been an integral part of poultry production in the US. Antimicrobials have been widely used in the poultry industry, for therapeutic purposes, disease prevention and growth promotion. It is now accepted that use of antibiotics in farms selects for drug resistant organisms which can then spread from farm to humans through consumption of contaminated food (Hawkey, 2008). Research on antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens have demonstrated that use of antimicrobials in agriculture can result in drug resistant bacteria isolated from humans (Angulo, Baker, Olsen, Anderson & Barrett, 2004; Hawkey, 2008; Hawser, 2012; USDA National Organic Program, 2008).

We found a total prevalence of of

We found a total prevalence of 18/120 (15 %) of DNA in the collected fecal samples (). The majority of the positive samples (10/120) were collected in Central Park West in Manhattan resulting in a prevalence of 17% for that park, while four positive samples were from Van Cortland Park in the Bronx, resulting in a prevalence of 12% (). Additionally, four -positive samples were found in Prospect Park in Brooklyn, resulting in a prevalence of 11% (). We were not able to obtain sequence data from one of the positive sample. Sequence analysis of 17 of the positive amplicons revealed 16 isolates of the zoonotic TAPI-1 A (94.1%) and one isolate of the dog-specific D genotype (5.9%). Other genotypes were not observed in this study. DNA from both parasites was not detected concurrently in any the samples collected. All the samples in our studies were found to be from domestic dogs (data not shown).
This study uncovered the prevalence of and infections in domestic dogs frequenting three popular and active public parks in New York City. Toxoplasmosis and giardiasis are serious public health concerns worldwide because and are zoonotic parasites. In the United States alone, it is estimated that 60 million individuals are infected with (CDC, 2015). Since dogs are intermediate hosts for , our data indicate environmental contamination with oocysts.
In conclusion, this study reveals and protozoan parasites in domestic dogs frequenting New York City parks. The finding of assemblage I and genotype A in these popular and frequently visited parks is noteworthy and has significant implications for public health, particularly for individuals with impaired immune system frequenting these parks as well as children who play in those parks. In both cases, thorough handwashing prior to food consumption is advisable. In the future, we will sample at different time frames and expand to other parks.
Conflict of interest statement

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank the Department of Biology and the School of Science at Manhattan College for financial support. The authors are also grateful to Drs. Steven Singer (Georgetown University, Washington D.C.) and Dr. Gustavo Arrizabalaga (Indiana School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN) for Giardia duodenalis and T. gondii genomic DNA, respectively. Preliminary results were presented as an Abstract at the 89th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Parasitologists, New Orleans, USA, 24th–27th July 2014.

Ducks are frequently infected by and without showing clinical signs and may serve as a carrier of spp. to other animals (). Hatcheries are a potential source of infection for 1-day-old chicks through environmental contamination, but it is uncertain whether vertical transmission occurs through the egg ().
Erythromycin, fluoroquinolones (FQ), gentamicin and tetracycline are effective treatments for disease due to spp., but careful use of antibiotics is required to reduce the risk of emergence of resistant strains, which could be transmitted to humans (). The resistance of spp. to tetracycline is commonly associated with the presence of the (O) gene, which could be transferred from resistant strains to sensitive strains (). Likewise, mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region () of , especially T86I, have been linked to the resistance of spp. to FQ with incidence of hypermutable phenotype in resistant strains to FQ (). The aim of this study was to provide information on antibiotic resistance of spp. in 1-day-old ducklings in Egypt.
A total of 150 faecal meconium samples (~1 g each) were collected in 9 mL Bolton broth (Oxoid) from 1-day-old commercial meat ducklings (e.g. Muscovy, Mallard). All samples were submitted to the Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Giza, for routine examination in 2011 and 2012. Isolation and biochemical identification of spp. were performed according to ISO 10272-1 using blood-free selective media (CCD agar and Karmali agar; Oxoid). Resistance against ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT), gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol (Oxoid) was determined using the disc diffusion method test conducted following the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

br Recently dynamic chest radiography using a flat panel

Recently, dynamic chest radiography using a flat panel detector (FPD) system with a large field of view was introduced for clinical use. This technique can provide sequential chest radiographs with high temporal resolution during respiration (17), and the TAPI-1 dose is much lower than that of CT. Also, whereas CT and MRI are performed in the supine or prone position, dynamic chest radiology can be performed in a standing or sitting position, which is physiologically relevant. To the best of our knowledge, no detailed study has analyzed diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing by using dynamic chest radiography.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing in a standing position in a health screening center cohort using dynamic chest radiography in association with participants\’ demographic characteristics.

Materials and Methods

Study Population

This cross-sectional study was approved by the institutional review board, and all the participants provided written informed consent. From May 2013 to February 2014, consecutive 220 individuals who visited the health screening of our hospital and met the following inclusion criteria for the study were recruited: age greater than 20 years, scheduled for conventional chest radiography, and underwent pulmonary function test. Patients with any of the following criteria were excluded: pregnant (n  =  0), potentially pregnant or lactating (n  =  0), refused to provide informed consent (n  =  22), had incomplete datasets of dynamic chest radiography (n  =  3), had incomplete datasets of pulmonary function tests (n  =  1), could not follow tidal breathing instructions (eg, holding breath or taking a deep breath) (n  =  18), or their diaphragmatic motion could not be analyzed by the software described next (n  =  4). Thus, a total of 172 participants (103 men, 69 women; mean age 56.3 ± 9.8 years; age range 36–85 years) were finally included in the analysis ( Fig 1). The data from 47 participants of this study population were analyzed in a different study (under review). The heights and weights of the participants were measured, and the body mass index (BMI, weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters) was calculated.

Figure 1. Flow diagram of the study population.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (83 K)Download as PowerPoint slide

Imaging Protocol of Dynamic Chest Radiology (“Dynamic X-Ray Phrenicography”)

Posteroanterior dynamic chest radiography (“dynamic X-ray phrenicography”) was performed using a prototype system (Konica Minolta, Inc., Tokyo, Japan) composed of an FPD (PaxScan 4030CB, Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT, USA) and a pulsed X-ray generator (DHF-155HII with Cineradiography option, Hitachi Medical Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). All participants were scanned in the standing position and instructed to breathe normally in a relaxed way without deep inspiration or expiration (tidal breathing). The exposure conditions were as follows: tube voltage, 100 kV; tube current, 50 mA; pulse duration of pulsed X-ray, 1.6 ms; source-to-image distance, 2 m; additional filter, 0.5 mm Al + 0.1 mm Cu. The additional filter was used to filter out soft X-rays. The exposure time was approximately 10–15 seconds. The pixel size was 388 × 388 µm, the TAPI-1 matrix size was 1024  × 768, and the overall image area was 40 × 30 cm. The gray-level range of the images was 16,384 (14 bits), and the signal intensity was proportional to the incident exposure of the X-ray detector. The dynamic image data, captured at 15 frames/s, were synchronized with the pulsed X-ray. The pulsed X-ray prevented excessive radiation exposure to the subjects. The entrance surface dose was approximately 0.3–0.5 mGy.