Tag Archives: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

One limitation of our study is

One limitation of our study is that we did not use a validated scale to measure risk of sexual dysfunction, such as the Female Sexual Function Index and instead used questions taken from the Fertility Problems Inventory. However, the Fertility Problem Inventory is a validated measurement of infertility-related stress and assesses stress in five specific domains including sexual concerns. It assesses diminished sexual enjoyment or sexual self-esteem and difficulty with sexual relationships. This scale is unique because it was developed specifically to address infertility-related stress. Therefore, although this scale is not traditionally used in the sexual health literature, our results provide valuable information about the sexual impact of infertility and could provide insight into patients at high risk for sexual dysfunction. As noted earlier, the effects of infertility and male sexual impact using this scale have been published. Another limitation is that our selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor might be an underrepresentation of patients from lower socioeconomic strata and is from a somewhat limited geographic region. Nevertheless, although not representative of the general public, this population is more likely to present for care and interact with the health care system, and this population is representative of one that would typically be seen in an infertility clinic practice. Our population also had lower rates of male infertility than seen in the general infertility population. Although only 7% of respondents had infertility from male factors only, population-based studies have estimated that male factor infertility accounts for close to one fourth of infertility. Therefore, our population is somewhat skewed from the general population seeking infertility care. We also could not adjust for underlying medical comorbidities such as diabetes or depression, which are known to have significant impact on sexual function, or for the use of medications known to have a negative impact on sexual function.
Strengths of this study include its large number of couples from a diverse sample of clinics. Moreover, although participation in our study required fluency in English, studies have estimated that more than 78% of the U.S. population speak English “well” or “very well” and therefore we were able to capture a large segment of the patients from the San Francisco Bay area. We also collected detailed medical and demographic information that allowed for controlling for important confounders.


Statement of authorship

It cannot be denied that various disease states affect the sexual function, interpersonal relationships, and psychiatric and physiological well-being of men and women. It is well recognized that human sexuality should be a core part of undergraduate doctor training. However, it has limited representation in those training programs, with no internationally agreed core curriculum or perspective. There appears to be little evaluation of current best practice or evidence reflected in that training. The ability for a doctor to apply a holistic framework in a life cycle context in all aspects of clinical work could be limited according to the training offered at the undergraduate level. It also could be agreed that assessing, diagnosing, and treating sexual dysfunction does require more training and that this should be provided at the undergraduate level.
A 2010 study by Foley et al suggested that an indicator of a doctor\’s ability to assess patients\’ sexual function relates to the level of earlier training and that, equally, increased levels of training and continuing education correlate to increased levels of comfort in discussing sexual matters. Their study concluded that a multidisciplinary team approach is the most efficient way to assess and treat sexual dysfunction, with doctors feeling confident in diagnosing sexual dysfunction and, should they judge it appropriate, referring to sex therapists for more in-depth assistance.

br Introduction For the past decade the reports have

For the past decade, the reports have been made on the therapeutic agents use of transition metal complexes [1–4]. DNA is a hereditary material that contains the genetic instructions indicating the biological informations of all cellular forms of life. Understanding the mechanism of function of the genetic information on a molecular level is a important subject to development of new chemotherapeutic strategies.
Much recent research is to find out ways to control specific gene expression, in order to prevent many diseases [5].
DNA represents a appropriate target for metal complexes [6]. For as much as transition metal complexes have redox and photophysical properties, it is conceivable to develop DNA cleavage agents and chemotherapeutics. Complexes containing aromatic ligands can stack among the DNA base pairs. Metal, or ligands can be varied and resulted in an controlled way to promote the individual applications [7]. The properties of the complex compounds depend on coordination environment [8]. Ruthenium complexes are very promising, due to low general toxicity [9], stability and ease of synthesis [10]. The biological activity of ruthenium complexes has been studied since 1950’s onwards. They are prone to be considered as drug candidates [11]. Organic intercalators can inhibit nucleic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor synthesis in vivo and favorable pharmacological profiles in vitro in different cell lines [7], so they are as good anticancer [12], also they are used in areas such as catalytic, electron transfer mediated activity [8] and having high emission for the use of sensors technologies [13].
The ligand substitution kinetics of ruthenium(II) and ruthenium(III) are similar to platinum(II) compounds but flexible due to the strong influence of the coordinated ligands. Ruthenium compounds are good candidates for use in biological activity. Because in these compounds, ligand exchange rates are andante, which are close to those of cellular processes [14]. There is no doubt that ligand exchange is an important parameter of biological activity, mostly to make the metal drugs agents in biological processes, they must be chemically modified. Under physiological conditions, metal interaction with nucleic acids, proteins, sulfur, or oxygen containing compounds and water can occur in the cells, these interactions is necessary for drugs in order to have a therapeutic effect [11].
In the molecular biology, DNA is often a target for drugs as a carrier of genetic information. Such drugs can influence DNA replication and cell division. So that they show DNA-targeted pharmacological activity and interfere with the transcription processes and protein synthesis [9].
Small molecule is employed as analogs in studies of protein-nucleic acid identification, provides site-specific reagents for molecular biology and yields reasonings for new drug design [14].
Since Lerman in 1961 for the first time, formulated the concept of intercalation into DNA [15], bioinorganic research were done exclusively on Ru(II) octahedral complexes containing at least one aromatic heterocyclic ligand for intercalation, in between base pairs [16]. An intercalative binding way, in which a part of aromatic rings intercalates between adjacent base pairs of the DNA structure by a major groove [17].
The effect of shape, size, hydrophobicity and charge of the heteroaromatic ligand or metal center on the binding of the complex to DNA has been analyzed. Pyridine ligands, have Highly regarded due to a combination of easily constructed rigid chiral structures extending all three spatial dimensions and a rich source of photophysical [15].
In binding metal with DNA, non-covalent interactions include intercalation, minor groove DNA binding, major groove DNA binding, and electrostatic interactions, which are reversible Processes [18].
Ru(II) pyridyl complexes effectively interact with DNA with extended aromatic ligands through intercalation and electrostatic interactions [19].

In Western Europe as in other geographical

In Western Europe, as in other geographical regions, the “ethics of austerity”, enhanced by the recent economic crisis (Windebank & Whitworth, 2014), along with a wider desire to decrease public deficit, has encouraged a number of states to reduce the amount of money available for public services and enabled the private sector to penetrate previously state-monopolised aspects such as healthcare or education (Kovacs, 2014; Ó Beacháin, Sheridan, & Stan, 2012; Rogers & Sheaff, 2000; Tatar, Ozgen, Bayram, Belli, & Berman, 2007). This process has been somehow less rapid in Central and Eastern Europe but only because it is building on a de facto process of privatisation (Harboe, 2014; Polese, 2006b) as opposed to a de jure one in more advanced economies. Traditionally, privatisation issues have been a major concern for economists or public policy specialists. Scholarship, however, has often neglected various grey situations that are, nonetheless, frequently encountered. If we see the economic and social life of a state shared between two, or in some cases three, main forces, as in Fig. 2, we can think of three situations that have been underrepresented in scholarship.
The first one is the transition between public and private services. If a state decides to privatise a service – fully or partially – then it is possible that at the end of the privatisation process, the new system will work better than the preceding public one. However, there is generally an selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor period during which time gaps in provision may appear, sometimes lasting long enough to be more than just ‘transition’. For instance some competencies might remain “uncovered” because both state and private sectors claim it is the other side\’s responsibility. In a second case, one can find a gap between a service that has been promised and the way it is actually delivered. This could simply be due to bureaucratic issues, where a need is identified, money to address the need is allocated, but it takes a number of signatures and years, to unblock proper implementation. It could, however, also be due to the third situation, in which the state fails to address a given issue and simply leaves (or never enters) the game. This is the case when providing a service is too costly, or there is little interest or awareness of a given need to be addressed. The case study in this article is most closely related to the last two scenarios (Table 1).
In the recent past, situations where citizens expected or were promised A, but delivered B have resulted in a conflict that has been solved in different ways. Contestation and contentious politics is one of them, when citizens openly criticise and challenge the state, asking for a change from the status quo (Della Porta, 2009; Tarrow, 2005). Organised criminality and illegal flows are another well-studied field, with some groups taking advantage of the void of power to create a system within the system with its own rules of engagement and different distributions of welfare and benefits (Bruns & Migglebrink, 2012; O\’Brien & Penna, 2007; Pinotti, 2012; Van Schendel & Abrahams, 2005). There are also cases where an initiative starts from citizens who organise in a less hierarchical structure than a mafia to provide a service, competing with the state in welfare distribution (such as Time Banks or other alternative currencies). Those actions can either be formally coordinated, such as when civil society organisations or informal groups start providing services, or uncoordinated, but still widely popular within a certain segment of a society (Koven & Michel, 1990; Mollica, 2014). We are clearly indebted to Scott\’s (1984) works on everyday forms of resistance when framing the approach of this article. Our question, however, starts from the possibility to apply this framework more broadly and see it not only as resistance or a survival strategy, but in a more structural way.
We start from the question of what happens when a state retires, or refrains, from (providing services to) a particular geographic area and what kind of mechanisms, practices and institutions are created to make up for this. We suggest that, in the absence of an entrepreneurial actor, be it the state or a private one, a service that is needed by a given segment of a population might end up being provided informally. To do this, this article takes the region around Chernobyl in north–central Ukraine as a case study to document the way the absence of de facto welfare protection leads to the creation of local informal markets and economic activity. In the Chernobyl region the excluded and abandoned have created a set of informal mechanisms independent from the state. While Harboe (2013) has documented the life of Invisible Citizens, who avoid formal institutional relations with the state due to a general scepticism towards such establishments, we here deal with those that the state has decided to avoid a relationship with. Although the provision of a small state pension paid out each month, tiny food subsidies, or the permission to live in a given place might indicate that the state has ‘not forgotten’ about these people, the amount of benefits received and the way this compares to the rest of the country seem to point to the fact that state support is only nominal, showing little or no difference to those who receive nothing from the state. The post-Chernobyl Ukrainian state offers only a ‘Potemkin village’ of welfare support – a complex web of de jure entitlements but a lived reality of de facto state abandonment.

The members of the learning collective

The members of the learning collective need, first, to have a common will to address the meta-level issue of science for sustainable development. Second, none of the members should desire to develop and master an approach that excludes the diversity of views represented by the other members of the learning collective. This is particularly difficult because as academics, we are trained (we could also say disciplined) to be disciplinary and to organize our thinking in a convincing and competitive way. The members must therefore be willing to unlearn their disciplinary privileges, 14 i.e. they must be willing to temporarily divest themselves of their academic habits and the power that goes with these habits. Third, in order for the learning collective to become a thought collective capable of initiating a paradigm transformation, sufficient time must be made available to its members for them to be able to work in this manner; for example, a buy-out system must be developed.
4.3. Facilitating the learning process
Our experience with Theme-Centred Interaction or TCI (Cohn and Farau, 2001 and Cohn, 2002) provided evidence that TCI is a particularly adequate approach for enabling the learning collective to function, as its key tenet is value orientation (Box 1). Indeed, TCI is designed to enable group members to (a) acknowledge their diversity, (b) be guided by a common concern, (c) be willing to build an selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor of respect by temporarily abandoning disciplinary competitiveness, and (d) be willing to work over a longer period of time together in order to develop into a thought collective.
Experience with TCI in the fields of “natural resource management” and “humanism and power”
TCI is a well-known approach in professional training for social work and organizational development. It is a proven means of integrative learning in situations where gaps between world views and values seem unbridgeable, mainly because of power relations (Stollberg, 2008). Unfortunately, it is hardly known in science concerned with building bridges across disciplinary and other epistemological boundaries, including in the context of sustainable development. The appropriateness of the approach is rooted in the core aim of TCI, which is to enable individuals to increase their ability to take responsibility for themselves in their interdependence with others and with nature. Thus, as we argue in greater detail in Section 7, the appropriateness of the approach for our proposal is also probably the reason why Cohn\’s work has not been reflected upon to date in research concerned with sustainable development. Indeed, since the dominant norm in science (objectivity) is that facts and values ought to be split (van Gigch, 2006: 5) and researchers should only focus on establishing facts in their work, not on relating their work to values, it is only normal that reflections on interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity within the context of this science system cannot be open to an approach such as Cohn\’s.

In conclusion we have investigated the nonlinear optical

In conclusion, we have investigated the nonlinear optical properties of NF-RGO and NF-RGO/Ag-NPs with various concentrations of Ag-NPs through Open-aperture Z-Scan technique. The samples exhibit significant optical limiting behavior which is attributed to RSA competing with SA in the ns excitation regime and 2 PA in combination with SA in the fs excitation regime. The optical limiting thresholds were found to be lower in the fs excitation regime compared to the ns excitation regime. This has been attributed to the prominent plasmon band bleaching of Ag-NPs when excited at 532 nm. Furthermore the nonlinear optical analyses show that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor the OL properties of NF-RGO/Ag-NPs hybrid are size dependent. This finding gives a good understanding on the graphene based nonlinear materials and also indicate that the as-synthesized materials could be potential candidates for optical limiting applications.
AcknowledgementsIndian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR – Govt. of India) is gratefully acknowledged for their financial and moral support. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from the Department of Sciences and Technology (DST – Govt. of India) through the Nano Mission, PURSE, FIST Programs and UGC – Govt. of India for the SAP Program. Financial support from the Ministry of Education of Republic of Senegal is also highly acknowledged.
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Oxides; Nanostructures; Semiconductors; Chemical synthesis; Chemical techniques; Optical properties
1. Introduction
Nowadays, there has been an increasing demand for the development of nanosized semiconductors due to their electrical and optical properties which are highly important in fabricating nanoscaled optoelectronic and electronic devices with multifunctionality [1], [2], [3] and [4]. Among different semiconducting nanomaterials, zinc oxide (ZnO) is n-type semiconductor that has been hexagonal structure, nontoxic, biosafe, and biocompatible [5]. Also, it has wide band gap of 3.37 eV gives it an upper hand compared to others [6], [7], [8], [9] and [10]. Due to these properties, the ZnO has an edge for applications of semiconductor including nanogenerators [11], gas sensors [12], solar cells [13], varistors [14], biosensors [15], drug carriers, cosmetic preparates like sun protection cream, acne treatment or as a wound dressing, and fillings in medical materials because antibacterial and anti-inflammatory behavior [16], photodetectors [17], and photocatalysts [18].
ZnO photocatalyst has a good capacity to degrade volatile organic pollutants to CO2 and H2O. However, the efficiency of ZnO is affected by its wide band gap, which only responses to a small fraction of the sun’;s energy spectrum [19]. When comparing with common TiO2 photocatalyst, its drawbacks are low efficiency of photocatalysis and low stability due to photocorrosion [20]. In order to improve its photocatalytic acttivity, two methods have been developed. The first is dye-sensitizing, compositing of semiconductors with a narrow band gap, non-metal (e.g. N, C, S), transition metal and noble metal doping, etc. [21], [22], [23], [24] and [25]. The second method for increasing its photocatalytic efficiency includes changes in its physical properties such as particle size, surface area and morphology by preparation methods [26].