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br Discussion As expected the pharmacists provided more

As expected, the pharmacists provided more general health advices compared with oral health advices. These results agree with the findings of a British study (Maunder and Landes, 2005). Similar to the findings of present study, other studies (Maunder and Landes, 2005; Amien et al., 2013; Bawazir, 2014) demonstrated that substantial number of pharmacists was approached for providing symptomatic relief for dental pain and oral ulcer. In addition, the clients frequently sought pyrilamine maleate cost pharmacists\’ advices (86%) for tooth whitening products. Only 10.8% of the clients sought advices for dental floss. This may reflect increasing interest in dental esthetics in KSA. On the contrary, Priya et al. observed no customer seeking advice for tooth whitening product in India (Priya et al., 2008).
Similar to the findings reported by Maunder and Landes (2005), majority of pharmacists (77.4%) in our study referred clients complaining of oral/dental pain to dentists. This high percentage of referral to dentists shows a good trend among the pharmacists that can reduce the possibility for misdiagnosis of oral problems and provision of appropriate dental treatment. Maunder and Landes (2005) also showed that one quarter of pharmacists (23.5%) referred clients to physicians and nearly all of them prescribed analgesics in case of oral pain. On the contrary, the present study found only 2.9% of pharmacists referring clients to physicians and 28% prescribed analgesics. This demonstrates increased awareness among pharmacists about the referral of their clients.
In contrast to the results acquired by Maunder and Landes (2005) which showed more than half of pharmacist recommended a dental product based on their personal experience; our study found only 2.2% of respondents used personal experience in prescribing a dental product. However, it was encouraging to see about half of respondents recommending dental product based on its knowledge and only few of them made their decision on the product advertisement. It is important to take into account that although the majority of the participating pharmacists recommended their clients to see a dentist in the nearest clinic, a few of them actually met any member of the dental clinic.
The study included a large random sample of pharmacists from all over the province in comparison with other studies which involved smaller sample of pharmacists collected from a single city (Maunder and Landes, 2005; Priya et al., 2008; Amien et al., 2013). This provided more representative sample and ensured better generalizability of our findings. Nevertheless, our results may not be generalized to the pharmacists working in the hospitals in the province because they were excluded from the study or to other regions of the country. The questionnaires were distributed and collected by dental students and this might raise the possibility for obsequiousness bias and subsequently affect the validity of the study to certain extent (Amien et al., 2013). The response rate was satisfactory. The reason for non-response included lack of time, having no interest in the study, resistance or hesitation due to breach of their confidentiality, and obtaining no prior permission from the administration of the pharmacies.


Ethical statement

Conflict of interest

In the 19th century, the dermatologist Moritz Kaposi was the first to describe Kaposi Sarcoma (KS). KS was originally described as plaques affecting the lower limbs of elderly males with Jewish descents (Kaposi, 1872). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors update in 2002, KS has been moved to intermediate neoplasms (rarely metastasizing) (Fletcher et al., 2002).
Kaposi Sarcoma has been defined as “a multi-centric mucocutaneous neoplasm of endothelial origin” which is present in four clinical forms: classic, iatrogenic, endemic, and epidemic (Fatahzadeh et al., 2013). Classic KS is rare and mild with benign behavior. It has propensity for elderly males with Jewish and Mediterranean origins (Régnier-Rosencher et al., 2013; Ruocco et al., 2013). It is mainly cutaneous, but it can involve lymphatic and visceral organs in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts (Radu and Pantanowitz, 2013). In addition, association was found between classic KS and diabetes (Anderson et al., 2008).

pyrilamine maleate cost Owing to the heterogeneous representation of the various glioma types

Owing to the heterogeneous representation of the various glioma types and the limited number of cases in our study, a statistical analysis was not appropriate. Despite the absence of statistically significant results, this proof of concept study shows the feasibility of detecting progenitor cell markers with IHC in spontaneous canine tumour samples and the presence of these pyrilamine maleate cost in all grades of diffuse gliomas. The results are a further step in demonstrating the value of spontaneous models in comparative oncology. New therapeutic strategies specifically targeting CSCs are being developed (Cho et al., 2013) and the dog could serve as a translational model for such treatments. Additional studies with a larger cohort will be necessary to allow rigorous statistical analysis of pre-planned outcome measures. We plan to extend our investigation using a greater number of canine glioma samples, currently included in a multicentre study, to evaluate IHC as well as biological characteristics of primary culture cells (capacity for neurosphere formation, multi-lineage differentiation, and tumour initiation in immunocompromised xenografted rodents).


Conflict of interest statement

We gratefully acknowledge Ester Blasco and Lola Pérez for technical support, and Royal Canin Company, especially Isabelle Mougeot, for providing financial support for this study. Preliminary results were presented as an abstract at the 25th Symposium of the Spanish Society of Veterinary Pathology (SEAPV), Toledo, Spain, 19–21 June 2013, and as an oral communication at the Second Joint European Congress of the European Society of Veterinary Pathology, European Society of Toxicologic Pathology and the European College of Veterinary Pathologists, Berlin, Germany, 27–30 August 2014.

Canine atlantooccipital overlapping (AOO) is defined by a diminished distance between the dorsal lamina of the atlas and the supraoccipital bone, with the dorsal lamina of the atlas located either immediately caudal to the foramen magnum or within it (Cerda-Gonzalez et al., 2009a; Dewey et al., 2009; Marino et al., 2012). This condition can cause cerebellar indentation, a reduction in cerebellomedullary cistern size, and may influence medullary position at the cervicomedullary junction (CCJ; Cerda-Gonzalez et al., 2009a; Marino et al., 2012). Prevalence of the condition is highest in small and toy-breed dogs (55%) and lower in Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS; 20%; Marino et al., 2012).
Atlantooccipital overlapping resembles the human condition basilar impression/invagination (BI), in which the atlas and axis are displaced toward or through the foramen magnum, with variable involution of the foramen magnum margins (Chamberlain, 1939; Rao et al., 2002; Tassanawipas et al., 2005; Goel, 2009). Atlantooccipital overlapping and BI are both often seen alongside other CCJ anomalies, such as Chiari-like malformations, medullary elevation/herniation, and atlantoaxial instability (Goel et al., 1998; Rao et al., 2002; Cerda-Gonzalez et al., 2009a; Marino et al., 2012; Driver et al., 2013). In dogs, AOO has also been implicated as a cause of cerebellar indentation (Marino et al., 2012). However, the cause of AOO is unknown and it is unclear whether cranial displacement of the atlas or caudal bulging of the supraoccipital bone causes the overlap to occur.
Both AOO and BI are implicated in the development of neuropathic pain and neurologic dysfunction. Symptomatology has been linked to specific MRI findings in people with BI, such as extension of the dens >5 mm beyond Chamberlain\’s line (Tassanawipas et al., 2005), or a foramen magnum diameter <25 mm (Cronin et al., 2007). In contrast, the relationship between clinical signs and AOO has not been fully defined in dogs. Affected dogs are described as showing signs of cerebellar and cervical spinal cord dysfunction and head and neck pain (Cerda-Gonzalez et al., 2009a; Dewey et al., 2009). However, these signs are solely linked to subjective diagnostic criteria.