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Teeth type may affect the

Teeth type may affect the percentage of tooth structure removal and this in agreement with Hussain et al. Amount of teeth weight before preparation may affect the percentage of tooth structure removed.
The guidelines that were used for the tooth preparations were for ideal situations. Only the specific requirements of the restorative material were considered as a factor for tooth structure removal. In vivo, the health of the tooth, esthetics, function, tooth orientation, and reconstruction of the occlusion may affect the final preparation design.
Clear templates and periodontal probes were used to control the tooth preparations. Each tooth was embedded beyond the CEJ; thus, adapting the template to the tooth was challenging. As a result, the template was constructed on a duplicate purchase buprenorphine hydrochloride of each tooth with vent holes near the tooth surface, and the duplicate cast was subsequently sectioned to retrieve the template. Clinically, the preparation should be guided by a template that is custom-fabricated and is based on the diagnostic wax-up. This procedure economizes the removal of tooth material and ensures a consistent thickness of the final restorative material. An advantage of a clear template over the silicon index is that all of the tooth surfaces can be seen and measured through the template, and the clear template can be used to fabricate the temporary restoration.

Within the limitations of this study, the following conclusions can be drawn:

Conflict of interest

Tooth impaction is a pathological condition in which a tooth fails to erupt to the normal functional position within the expected time; due to lack of space, or physical barriers. Third molar is the most commonly impacted tooth in the oral cavity and accounts for 98% of all impactions. The frequency of third molar impaction varies substantially among different populations; and was reported to range from 18% to 70%. This can be attributed to racial variation in the pattern of facial growth and jaw and tooth size, which are crucial determinants of the eruption pattern.
The removal of impacted third molars is one of the most common procedures performed in the speciality of oral and maxillofacial surgery, since these teeth are often associated with pathological conditions including pericoronitis, periodontitis, cystic lesions or root resorption.
Third molar extraction can be performed using elevators and/or forceps, or may require a surgical intervention. The latter is associated with increased risk of postoperative complications such as alveolar osteitis (dry socket), haemorrhage, nerve injuries, or in rare occasions, a fracture of the mandible. However, the majority of these problems can be anticipated preoperatively with adequate clinical examination and dental radiographs. Panoramic radiograph (OPG) is considered the technique of choice to evaluate the status of impacted third molars. It is used to assess the angular position of impaction, level of impaction and amount of covering bone. In addition, panoramic radiograph is a reliable tool to evaluate the relationship between inferior alveolar canal and third molars.

Materials and methods
This study was undertaken on a group of patients attending a private dental clinic in Benghazi between 2008 and 2013. A total of 300 OPGs comprising 1200 third molar were selected for evaluation. The age range of subjects was 20–54 years. Records of the following cases were excluded from the study:

Among the 300 OPGs evaluated, 156 (52%) were of males and 144 (48%) were of females, the mean age of the study group was 29±6years. Fig. 1 shows the distribution of subjects by the total number of impacted third molars.
From the 1200 third molars reviewed, 843 were classified as impacted and were evaluated in base study. Of the 843 impactions, 371 (44%) were in the maxilla and 472 (56%) were in the mandible. Impacted third molars were 1.2 times more likely to occur in the mandible than in the maxilla. There was no significant difference between the right and left sides in both arches (P=0.685). Moreover, the total number of impactions was not significantly different between the sexes (P=0.256). The distribution of impacted third molars by arch, sex and side is shown in Table 1.

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Materials and Methods


Several confirmed human carcinogenic agents for occupational LHP cancer have been identified by IARC (Group 1), including benzene, ionizing radiation, purchase buprenorphine hydrochloride oxide, 1,3-butadiene, and formaldehyde [12]. Among the chemicals used as raw materials and additives in the company where the seven cases occurred, none were IARC Group 1 human carcinogenic chemicals for LHP cancers (Table 2). The MSDSs for ethylene oxide and formaldehyde were found at some other major semiconductor companies, although their use has been very limited, but not from Plants A and B (Table 5).
It was suspected that various kinds of chemicals, including carcinogens, have been used in the semiconductor industry [2,13]. However, the detailed figures of chemicals and their carcinogenic risk in the industry have been veiled because of trade secrets in the high technology industry. In 2010, HSE found seven kinds of group 1 and 2 carcinogens designated by IARC (antimony trioxide, arsenic compounds, carbon tetrachloride, ceramic fiber, chromium, sulfuric acid, and trichloroethylene) [5], but none of them were LHP cancer-related. In 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in the US (NIOSH) reported the chemicals list used in an IBM plant (Endicotte) [14]. The report listed 20 known human carcinogens (IARC group 1) among 198 chemicals used from the late 1970s to 2004. Of these 20 carcinogens, benzene and formaldehyde were known human carcinogens with strong associations with LHP. However HSE and NIOSH did not measure air levels in the companies at that time.
To the best of our knowledge, air measurements of carcinogenic agents related with LHP cancer in the semiconductor industry have not been previously reported. During 2007 to 2010, OSHRI measured air benzene levels at the workplace of the seven cases, but benzene was not detected from all samples [9]. The maximum benzene level from another study conducted in 2009 [10] was 0.31 ppb (minimum detection level: 0.1 ppb), which did not differ from the outside air concentration (less than 0.30 ppb) measured at the same time. Because most major chemicals used in the FAB department are passed through closed vessels in the automated system, exposure levels of most chemicals are low during normal procedures. The chemical levels from the annual work environment measurements required by the law (Table 4) were also low. Low concentration chemical exposure has also been reported in other studies. The most frequently studied chemicals in the semiconductor industry were [15,16], halides [16], highly toxic gases such as arsine [17], and rare-earth metals [18,19] such as gallium, indium, and arsenic (Table 6). The concentration of gases, metals, glycols, and other organic solvents from FAB industries [16-19] were low.
For benzene, the risk of LHP cancer has been reported to double from 40 ppm-years of cumulative doses of benzene [20]. Compared to this level, exposure duration of the seven cases was not enough to develop LHP cancer, especially at this low level of exposure. One study reported that even under low levels of exposure, exposure durations longer than 20 years [21], or very high levels of peak exposure (higher than 100 ppm) [22], might increase the risk of LHP cancers. However, the exposure periods of all cases in this study were less than 20 years (6 of them were < 10 years) (Table 1), and the peak exposure level was far below 100 ppm. There was no known benzene in major raw materials and ingredients in the semiconductor industry. We can assume that benzene could be generated from chemical interaction of other chemicals, however, this may result in very low levels. Therefore, accidental high levels of exposure to benzene is very unlikely. In addition, two cases (Case No. 1 and 7) had exposure durations of less than two years, and LHP cancer developed 9 to 10 years after leaving the company in two other cases (Case No. 5 and 6). Two cases were presumed to be exposed to ion implantation instrument radiation for 20 months and 11 years, respectively; however, these instruments were located far from their working areas. Another case operated X-ray-generating instruments for 33 months. All three cases were diagnosed with AML, which is compatible with radiation-related cancer. However, all ionizing radiation measurements for these cases were similar to background levels except one measurement point for 5 samples (2.4 uSv/hr). Under normal working conditions, radiation exposure may not be regarded as a risk in the semiconductor industry; consequently, exposure levels have rarely been studied until now One study reporting on ionizing radiation using personal badge dosimetry in an ion implant process [19], and it showed levels less than the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the US, which is 1.25 rem per calendar quarter for whole body radiation. In 2009, another study on the ionizing radiation exposure in the semiconductor industry was conducted by OSHRI. In this study, the ionizing radiation level was 0.15 ± 6.49 (0.01-13.32) uSv/hr.

To create a random corpus

To create a random corpus, we identified a single calendar year (2013) from which to select publications, and we compiled lists of all the publications from that year for each journal. We assigned each publication a numeric value and, using a random number table, we selected ten publications from each journal. This may strike some readers as a small sample given our aim of identifying patterns in design research publications. However, we believe in alignment with others that we can reasonably expect that even a few texts can reflect broader patterns in a scholarly discourse. And so even though we are limited in our ability generalize about the types of knowledge claims made in design research, we believe our sample has the capacity to reflect general patterns in the broader field’s knowledge-claiming practices. To validate this purchase buprenorphine hydrochloride assumption would require broader examinations of a spectrum of publication venues.
In our sample of Nature publications, there are articles relevant to structural biology, neuroscience, theoretical physics, microbiology, and human anatomy, among others. Our ASR sample publications address such wide-ranging topics as illegal immigration, scientific discourse and eugenics, gender and white-collar crime, unionization, and paternal incarceration, among others. Finally, our Design Studies articles address topics such as the cultural boundedness of affordances, inclusive design, design as a deliberative enterprise, 2D vs. 3D sketching tools, the FBS framework, and methodological prescriptions, among others.
There were two components in our analysis. First, we distinguished the primary knowledge claim(s) made in each paper. To distinguish primary claims from others we applied Fisher’s method for extracting the claims and grounds of an argument. We read through each text circling inference indicators–words like thus and therefore, for example–underling claims, and bracketing grounds. We identified main claims from others by comparing the abstract, the introduction and conclusion sections, and a set of argument diagrams constructed using Fisher’s method whereby claims are ranked into a hierarchy to distinguish primary claims from secondary (supporting) claims. In a few cases, the main claims we identified through Fisher’s method did not match the author’s stated claims. However, we recognize prokaryote the stated claim is not always the actual claim made in a given paper. Once we identified the primary knowledge claim in each text, the second component of our analysis involved coding these claims using Hart’s typology as a coding scheme.

Also, we address several assumptions that we held prior to and during the coding activity. For example, we assumed that articles in Nature would only make claims of fact. We also assumed that articles in ASR would show a strong tendency toward claims of fact–though we anticipated finding other kinds of claims as well. Given the interdisciplinary nature of design research, we did not assume that we would find any patterns in the practice of making knowledge claims in Design Studies.
Finally, we address the relationship between the authors’ stated primary claims and the actual primary claims made in the body of the text. In Design Studies, unlike Nature and ASR, we found several discrepancies between stated primary claims and actual primary claims.
We found that each of ten papers from Nature made primary claims of fact (see Table 1). Our assumption that Nature publications would manifest a strong tendency for making primary claims of fact seems to have been correct. Moreover, in all but one publication the authors report the results of empirical experiments. The only non-empirical publication was a theoretical physics text authored by Jiang et al. We saw strong correspondence between stated primary claims and actual primary claims in Nature. We did not find any instances where a stated claim in the abstract did not match the primary claim made in the body of the text.