Tag Archives: prostanoid receptors

Practice guidelines need to include information for

Practice guidelines need to include information for parents. There is no rationale for advising parents to search through their children’s stool daily for the FBs. Discharge information should include advice on recognising the symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction or perforation should the FB not pass spontaneously (for example, due to it prostanoid receptors being lodged at the pylorus or ileocaecal valve).
The best modality for removal of the FB will depend on many factors, including the patient’s age and clinical condition, the size and shape of FB, type of FB, anatomic location, and the skill of the attending physician. Endoscopy is the most common method used to retrieve ingested FBs. In this study 14% of patients undergoing endoscopic removal suffered complications but the majority were self-limiting and none resulted in long-term morbidity. No deaths were recorded, which agrees with the low mortality rates associated with FB ingestion worldwide.
From these data, most FBs located in the oesophagus were removed. This is contrary to evidence that suggests FBs located in the distal oesophagus have a 30% chance of passing spontaneously and can be left in the oesophagus for 24h before it becomes mandatory to remove them. This practice of early removal is likely due to limited local resources (which makes reducing inpatient duration critical) and to high rates of loss to follow up when such patients are not admitted for observation.

Conclusion

Author contributions

Conflict of interest

African relevance

Introduction
One of the main challenges for emergency health care services in low to middle income countries (LMICs) is their limited capacity to deal with heavy emergency caseloads. The process of triage is one mechanism for mitigating this challenge.
Triage aims to determine a patient’s urgency for medical care (defined as their acuity level) in order to separate critically ill patients, who need immediate lifesaving interventions, from patients who need medical attention but can safely wait to be seen. Triage is recognised as being one of the core requirements for the provision of effective emergency care, and has been shown to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. In LMIC settings, however, triage remains under-used and under-researched, particularly in the area of paediatric emergency care.
The triage of adults and children relies on different triage scales in order to take account of physiological differences between the two. Very few paediatric triage scales exist for the triage of children in LMIC settings. Until recently, the most widely recommended scale was the Emergency Triage Assessment and Treatment (ETAT) system developed in 1998 by the World Health Organisation. However, this scale is only applicable for use in children under five. The South African Triage Scale (SATS) – developed in 2004 by the Cape Triage Group – is the only other triage scale designed specifically for LMIC settings, and one of its advantages over the ETAT, is that Pulse-chase experiments includes scales for the triage of infants and children up to the age of 12years. The main issue with both the paediatric versions of the SATS and the ETAT is that they are not formally validated in various contexts of use.
Validating a triage system in many contexts remains a challenge due to lack of a gold standard. To circumvent this, various studies have assessed validity using surrogate outcome markers such as mortality rates, resource utilisation, and length of hospital stay as proxies for true acuity level. In LMICs, however, reliance on such surrogate markers is difficult due to varying levels of care, lack of basic resources, and poor record keeping. As an alternative, Twomey et al. have recommended using the modified Delphi method to develop an objective reference standard against which to evaluate a triage scale. The Delphi method is a consensus-building technique, which, in the context of triage validation, can be used to develop a set of reference vignettes (short written case reports based on real emergency centre (EC) cases). This methodology has been used by Twomey et al. to assess the validity of the adult version of the SATS.

Although a wide spectrum of antibiotics produced

Although a wide spectrum of prostanoid receptors produced by fungi, including penicillin, streptomycin, cephalosporin, griseofulvin, erythromycin, and rifamycin, are used commercially, antibiotics from imperfect fungi are scarcely documented. Imperfect fungi or macrofungi have been used as a source of food and medicine since the Roman and Greek times [2,3]. The first ever report of basidiomycetes being used as a source of antimicrobial agent was first reported by Anchel et al. [4]. The mycelium and the fruiting body contain a wide range of bioactive compounds that can be used for their antimicrobial properties. Besides the cell wall glucans and secondary metabolites, basidiomycetes are also known to contain phenolic compounds, flavonoids, triterpenoids, lectin, dietary fibers, terpenes, and alkaloids, which have been proven to show significant bioactivities against microbial infections and anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anticancer, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal disorders along with immunomodulatory properties [5–7].
The methanolic extract of polyporus mushrooms such as Ganoderma luciderm, Phellinus rimosus, and Navesporous floccose is known to show antibacterial activity against a wide spectrum of clinical isolates [8]. As reported by Belsare et al. [9], chloroform and methanolic extracts of Phellinus switeniae showed potent activity against Acinetobacter baumannii.

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion
Subcellular deformities were examined using electron microscopy, which supports the hypothesis that the extracts of higher fungi can be a potent source of antimicrobial agents causing cellular deformities in clinical pathogens. The findings of this study correlated with the findings of Ozturk et al. [16] as the MIC of the macrofungal extract is more potent against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative pathogens. However, the effect was much more prominent in the morphology of Gram-negative K. pneumoniae. Electron microscopy provided the ultrastructural details of deformities in the cell architecture on treating the cells with the extracts. SEM micrographs provided evidence of cell shrinkage and cell wall destruction. An increased number of antimicrobial agents from macrofungi are anticipated, and the traditional use of macrofungi by ethnic communities as a source of medicine holds importance in this regard. All the macrofungi considered in the present study exhibited an antagonistic effect against the tested clinical pathogens. The macrofungus E. aspera demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity, which suggests that it can be explored as a potential source of an antimicrobial agent.
Identification of the macrofungi and their in vitro activity provides favorable clinical evidence of their use as antimicrobial agents. Visualization of the cellular deformities of treated clinical pathogens and their scanning electron micrographs give a platform to understand the nature of deformities and damages induced by the fungal extracts on the pathogens. With increasing resistance of clinical pathogens toward commercial antibiotics, methanolic extract of macrofungi holds promise as a novel drug candidate in the modern era. The present study brings out the first report on macrofungi consumed by ethnic tribes from Northeast India, which were surveyed as potential antimicrobial agents and provide promising observations.

Conflicts of interest

Acknowledgments

Introduction
The Bhagirathi-Hooghly River is the longest tributary of the River Ganga in West Bengal, India, which is also an important lifeline for the people of the state [1,2]. The physicochemical parameters of this river are altered by different anthropogenic activities and sewage pollution that may adversely affect the biology of fish [3–5]. Olfaction in fish is a special type of chemosensory modality that plays a vital role in various biological functions within the aquatic habitat (namely, searching for food, recognition of sex, avoidance of predators, parental care, and migration) [6]. This sense is largely dependent on the water ventilation mechanism over the olfactory neuroepithelium [7]. The water-soluble chemical odorants are dissolved within the mucous layer, bind to the G-protein-coupled receptors that are present on the kinocilia of olfactory sensory receptor neurons (OSNs), and are subsequently conveyed to the brain [8,9]. These neurons are also vulnerable when exposed to different organic, inorganic and genotoxic pollutants (including heavy metals) of the aquatic ecosystem, which inhibits olfactory responsiveness [10,11]. The ultrastructural aspects of bioaccumulation of heavy metal contaminants and its effect on olfactory responsiveness through acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in fish OSNs are still an obscure part of olfactory research. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to study the bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their effects (both cytological and histochemical) on OSNs by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a fish.

This paper addresses D strain estimation while D tracking

This paper addresses 1D strain estimation while 2D tracking is becoming more popular in various applications of elastography. Korukonda and Doyley used 2D cross-correlation tracking windows for vascular elastography [39] and for synthetic aperture elastography [40]. Jiang et al. [41] used a 2D block-matching algorithm [42] for estimating RF-ablation electrode-induced displacement as a mean for Young’s modulus reconstruction. However, 1D algorithms are still being used. In [20], using weighted nearest neighbors, Hussain et al. recently proposed three algorithms: 1D and 2D direct average strain estimation (DASE) techniques and a gradient based average strain estimation (GBASE) technique which is inherently 1D. In terms of SNRe and CNRe, all of these three algorithms outperformed the cross-correlation based estimator [1], the AS-based estimator [11] and the analytical minimization based estimator [19] for all tested strain levels. In another report [43], Hussain et al. presented a displacement estimation algorithm that uses weighted RF 1D cross-correlation and envelope 1D cross-correlation. Recently, Yuan and Pedersen [37] presented an analytic phase tracking based strain estimator using a 1D model. Thus, our 1D method is also useful in the context of these recent works. Also, in real-time elastography, where speed is of paramount importance, 1D tracking could be useful due to smaller computation time and is used in commercial scanners [44]. Furthermore, our characterization of 1D smooth windows should bring valuable insights into the analysis of 2D smooth windows.
In Section 2 of this prostanoid receptors paper, we discuss the theoretical background of data windowing in elastography. In Section 3, we have provided an analysis of our methodology. In Section 4, we have discussed the simulation and phantom experiments that we have performed. In Section 5, we have presented results from our simulation, phantom and in vivo studies. In Section 6, we have drawn conclusions from our work and discussed future work.

Theory
A simplified 1D model of pre-compression and post-compression ultrasound RF signal is given by [11]where r1(t) and r2(t) are the pre-compression and post-compression RF signals, respectively; s(t) is the ultrasound scattering function; p(t) is the ultrasound system response; n1(t) and n2(t) are uncorrelated random noises; ∗ is the convolution operator and a is the compression factor such that strain, ∊=1−a.
To perform local estimation of strain or displacement, local temporal segments are selected from r1(t) and r2(t). Such localization or windowing can be visualized as multiplying rectangular window functions with r1(t) and r2(t). Let i denote the axial index of the estimated displacement field. For estimating the displacement at a representative axial point i, local windows ,1(t) and ,2(t) are selected from r1(t) and r2(t), respectively, such that,where (t) is a rectangular window function with the following properties:Here, is the window length and is the window shift, assuming the use of the same window length and shift for pre-compression and post-compression data.
In typical elastography implementations, locally windowed data segments ,1(t) and ,2(t) are processed to estimate local displacement [1,16] or strain [11,20,15]. For example, the most typical implementation [1] uses a cross-correlation operation to estimate local tissue displacements. The normalized cross-correlation function between pre-compression and post-compression windows at axial point i, (τ) is given byTissue displacement at axial depth i is given bySince the strain and displacement estimation is performed using data truncated by window function (t), we hypothesize that the strain-image quality depends partly on the properties of (t).
In (2), (t), for i=1 to N, represents a set of rectangular window functions at different axial positions where N is the number of data windows in the axial direction. For example, when i=1, the window function q1(t) is given by

From another perspective the presence of T hydatigena cysticercosis

From another perspective, the presence of T. hydatigena cysticercosis may provide pigs with protective immunity because of genus-conserved immunogenic prostanoid receptors (Conlan et al., 2012). Porcine cysticercosis (T. solium) has been reported as endemic in Latin America, some parts of Asia and Africa. Therefore, with a concerted effort to identify, treat, and follow-to-cure T. solium tapeworm carriers, thereby reducing the infection pressure on pigs, continued exposure of pigs to T. hydatigena eggs may assist in further reducing T. solium transmission (Conlan et al., 2012).

Conclusions
A high prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs was recorded in Asia and South America while the prevalence in Africa was low. In cattle, overall prevalence was low. However, in general, few studies on the occurrence of T. hydatigena cysticercosis in pigs and cattle have been conducted; therefore, more studies are needed to gather comprehensive data on the occurrence of T. hydatigena. The possibility of biological differences in T. hydatigena isolates should be explored to find out whether genetic variation could explain the different prevalences recorded between animal species and between regions. In addition, the specificity of serological tests for the diagnosis of zoonotic cysticercosis in pigs and cattle should be improved to avoid cross-reactions with T. hydatigena.

Acknowledgement

Introduction
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by Phlebotominae vectors that mainly affects canines, felines, equines, rodents and humans (Chitimia et al., 2011; Gramiccia, 2011). The geographical distribution of the disease is defined, among other factors, by the vector distribution: Phlebotomus spp. in Europe, Africa and Asia and Lutzomyia spp. in America (Killick-Kendrick, 1990).
Leishmania vectors are holometabolous nematoceran insects with complete metamorphosis (Killick-Kendrick, 1979; Molina, 1994). At least 70 of the 600 known species and subspecies are capable of transmitting this protozoan (Killick-Kendrick, 1990). They have crepuscular activity when there is no wind or rain and the temperature exceeds 18°C (Killick-Kendrick et al., 1986). Its ideal temperature is approximately 20°C, but ascomycetes may be active above 16°C. Once fed, females return to their natural shelter to rest and filter blood before searching for the place of oviposition.
Dogs are the most affected domestic animal, and Leishmania infantum is the aetiological agent of most cases of canine leishmaniasis (CL) in the Mediterranean area. There is huge variability in the estimated prevalence due to different individual and environmental factors that affect the transmission of the disease. Some relevant studies carried out in Spain during the last 30 years have found a prevalence ranging from 3.9% to 67%, depending on geographical area (Table 1).
These differences may be due to the geographic region or the specific time in which the study was carried out; however, it has been found that there are factors associated with the prevalence of CL such as gender, habitat (indoor/outdoor), breed, age and purpose (Gálvez et al., 2010; Cortes et al., 2012; Miró et al., 2012). When comparing observational surveys, we can observe contradictions, and the prevalence of CL should be analysed from an epidemiological point of view to understand the role of confounding factors.
Epidemiology brings us the most practical information to establish prevention and control measures. Specifically, the use of theoretical models in epidemiology can be a useful tool for disease research where experimentation and field observations are very complex due to the existence of multiple factors related to animal welfare, time, money, etc. (Garner and Hamilton, 2011).
Epidemiological modelling has been used for decades to simulate the spread of the disease in animal and human populations (Anderson and May, 2002). Increasingly, mathematical modelling is being used in veterinary research for these purposes (Morris et al., 2002; Keeling et al., 2003; Risk Solutions, 2005; Guitian and Pfeiffer, 2006). With models is possible to explain and predict the pattern of disease outbreaks, simulate them and develop different strategies for management, eradication and disease control (Ögüt and Bishop, 2007).

Instead of simply focusing on how to demonstrate freedom from

Instead of simply focusing on how to demonstrate freedom from Trichinella, the discussion therefore progressed to the auditing of herds with respect to biosecurity, although (according to the EU legislation) some testing is still necessary in controlled-housing herds, with the exception of those located in Denmark or Belgium.
This approach had a larger potential than just preventing Trichinella – a high level of biosecurity is key to ensuring a negligible risk of several infections which may have a negative impact on the animals, the farmer’s finances or society. The recent epidemic of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea (PED) in the USA is an example of how devastating the introduction of an infection can be in a pig production unit (Stevenson et al., 2013). Farmers should therefore be informed about the value of having biosecurity and auditing systems in place.
This information should be continually communicated to farmers through their organisations and veterinarians so that freedom from infection can be maintained. In many cases, farmers may be more inclined to take the necessary precautions against infections with an impact on productivity than for infections they perceive as exotic (such as foot and prostanoid receptors disease, African or classical swine fever or Trichinella). However, biosecurity of any kind will minimise the probability of any infection being introduced – including Trichinella.
One method to monitor biosecurity in a pig herd actively is to use a scoring system called Biocheck.UGentTM, developed by the University of Ghent, Belgium (Ghent University, 2015). This method involves assessment of the level of biosecurity of a certain herd through an interview with the farmer regarding biosecurity practices. Interview answers are translated into a score (0–100) describing the herd’s internal, external and overall biosecurity status. BioCheck is made up of 118 questions, divided into six sub-categories (Ghent University, 2015; Potsma et al., 2015).
Guidelines on what constitutes a high level of biosecurity are available, for example OIE (OIE, 2016a), FAO/WHO/OIE (Gamble et al., 2007), and the ICT (Gamble et al., 2000). These guidelines are updated once in a while to ensure that the latest information regarding effective advice is given to the farmers and their advisors.
The concept of controlled housing is in use in the EU. This means a very high degree of biosecurity. It implies a type of animal husbandry, where post-weaning pigs are kept under conditions controlled by the farmer (with regard to feeding and housing). There must be no contact with wildlife, and effective rodent control is a necessity. A set of procedures laid out in EU Regulation 2015/1375 details the requirements for a pig farm applying controlled housing. These procedures closely reflect the contents in the guidelines mentioned and they must be fulfilled for a herd to be considered to apply controlled housing (Table 1).
This concept is comparable to the US Trichinae Certification Program, which was a voluntary programme put in place in 2008 in the USA (Pyburn et al., 2009). The aim was to certify production systems where the risk of exposure to Trichinella spiralis had been mitigated. The programme included aspects of farm management, biosecurity, feed and feed storage, rodent control programmes and general hygiene. The sites complying with the requirements were eligible for certification under the programme, and regular audits were carried out by USDA qualified and accredited veterinarians (Pyburn et al., 2005; Pyburn et al., 2009).
The proportion of EU farms able to fulfill the requirements for controlled housing listed in Table 1 is unknown. An indication can be based on the size of the farms: around 73% of current European pig farms are small (<10 finishing pigs), and they produce only 3.8% of the finishing pigs in the EU. Small farms are particularly seen in Romania, Croatia, Slovenia, and Bulgaria. Furthermore, a large variation exists within the EU with respect to the proportion of pig production that can be considered as forming part of such compartments. According to Pozio (2014), only 22% of fattening pigs were kept under such conditions in Poland, whereas Transposon was around 90% in nine other Member States. The expectation is that substantial changes will lead to fewer and larger farms in most of the EU (Marquer et al., 2014). This implies that a larger proportion of pig farms will become part of a controlled-housing compartment in various EU Member States in years to come.