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br Material and methods br Results Malvastrum A Gray Mem

Material and methods

Malvastrum A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, Series 2, 4(1): 21. 1849, nom. cons.
Type: Malvastrum wrightii A. Gray [= M. aurantiacum (Scheele) Walpers].
Sidopsis Rydberg, Fl. Prairie Plains Centr. N. Amer. 541. 1932.
Distribution: Central United States south through Central America and the Caribbean to San Juan, Cordoba, and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Widely introduced and naturalized in the Old World Tropics, especially common in India and Australia.
Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke, Bonplandia 5: 295. 1857.
Malva coromandeliana: L., Sp. Pl. ed.1, 2: 687. 1753.
Type: Hortus Upsaliensis, Linnaeus (Lectotype: LINN 870.3).
Detailed examination of the recently collected specimens of Malvastrum resulted in their identity as Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill. A key to the hdac inhibitor of Malvastrum coromandelianum is provided below to distinguish the taxon from the related subspecies and facilitate identification.
(O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Brittonia 32(4): 476. 1980. Malveopsis coromandeliana (L.) Morong var. capitato-spicatum O.Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 3(2): 21. 1898. Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke var. congestum R.F. Fries, Ark. Bot. 6(2): 6. 1906. Malvastrum tricuspidatum (R. Brown in Aiton f.) A. Gray var. β capito-spicatum (O. Kuntze) Stuckert, Anales Soc. Ci. Argent. 114: 28. 1932. Malvastrum tricuspidatum (R. Brown in Aiton f.) A. Gray var. congestum (R.E. Fries) Stuckert, Anales Soc. Ci. Argent. 114: 28. 1932 (Figs. 1 and 2).
Erect perennial or annual herb up to 1.5m tall; stem vesture of longitudinally scattered narrowly bilateral closely appressed short-tuberculate 4-rayed stellate hairs rarely mixed with simple hairs; stipule 4–10mm long, subfalcate, lanceolate, acuminate; petioles 3.0–4.0cm long; blades 2.5–9.0×1.5–6.0cm, wide-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, unlobed or not infrequently shallowly 3-lobed, apex acute to acuminate, margin dentate to nearly serrate, vesture of adaxial surface of bilateral 4-rayed appressed stellate hairs; flowers at first solitary in leaf axils but later produced in congested axillary and terminal few to many-flowered glomerate or short-spicate racemes throughout the upper half of the plant and branches with short internodes; bifid floral bracts lacking, flowers subtended by reduced leaves with stipules or by stipules alone; pedicels 2–3mm long; involucel of 3 lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate slightly falcate acuminate bracteoles; calyx basally united, 5–8mm long in fruit, broadly campanulate, lobes slightly spreading in flower and erect or incurved in fruit, deltate-cuspidate, abaxial surface moderately to sparsely pubescent with primarily 4-rayed stellate hairs on veins and a ciliate margin of simple hairs, adaxial surface puberulent with minute arachnoid simple or obscurely stellate hairs on the apical portion and marginally to the sinus; corolla yellow to pale golden-yellow, 1.5–1.7cm in diam when spread, wide-campanulate or nearly rotate, the petals asymmetrically bilobed, 7–9×5–6mm; androecium with 16–26 stamens, filaments c. 0.9mm long; gynoecium with 11–13 carpels, style branched 2.0–2.5mm above the columella, each stigma conspicuously expanded and hemispherical to subglobose and subequal to slightly recurved below the anther cluster; schizocarps 5.5–6.5mm diam; mericarps 11–13, 3.0–4.5mm high, 3.0–4.0mm long, 1.3–1.5mm wide, with a single median apical cusp of 1.0–2.0mm long, and two distal cusps of 0.4–1.0mm long conspicuously divergent from one another, lateral faces conspicuously ribbed especially on the margins, vesture of the apical surface and cusps of rigid simple hairs, lateral faces glabrous or a few minute hairs near apex, distal surface minutely pubescent with medial and marginal simple or stellate hairs, mericarp indehiscent, shed from the receptacle and calyx at maturity.

Recently dynamic chest radiography using a flat

Recently, dynamic chest radiography using a flat panel detector (FPD) system with a large field of view was introduced for clinical use. This technique can provide sequential chest radiographs with high temporal resolution during respiration (17), and the hdac inhibitor dose is much lower than that of CT. Also, whereas CT and MRI are performed in the supine or prone position, dynamic chest radiology can be performed in a standing or sitting position, which is physiologically relevant. To the best of our knowledge, no detailed study has analyzed diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing by using dynamic chest radiography.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing in a standing position in a health screening center cohort using dynamic chest radiography in association with participants\’ demographic characteristics.
Materials and Methods
Study Population
This cross-sectional study was approved by the institutional review board, and all the participants provided written informed consent. From May 2013 to February 2014, consecutive 220 individuals who visited the health screening of our hospital and met the following inclusion criteria for the study were recruited: age greater than 20 years, scheduled for conventional chest radiography, and underwent pulmonary function test. Patients with any of the following criteria were excluded: pregnant (n  =  0), potentially pregnant or lactating (n  =  0), refused to provide informed consent (n  =  22), had incomplete datasets of dynamic chest radiography (n  =  3), had incomplete datasets of pulmonary function tests (n  =  1), could not follow tidal breathing instructions (eg, holding breath or taking a deep breath) (n  =  18), or their diaphragmatic motion could not be analyzed by the software described next (n  =  4). Thus, a total of 172 participants (103 men, 69 women; mean age 56.3 ± 9.8 years; age range 36–85 years) were finally included in the analysis ( Fig 1). The data from 47 participants of this study population were analyzed in a different study (under review). The heights and weights of the participants were measured, and the body mass index (BMI, weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters) was calculated.
Figure 1. Flow diagram of the study population.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (83 K)Download as PowerPoint slide
Imaging Protocol of Dynamic Chest Radiology (“Dynamic X-Ray Phrenicography”)
Posteroanterior dynamic chest radiography (“dynamic X-ray phrenicography”) was performed using a prototype system (Konica Minolta, Inc., Tokyo, Japan) composed of an FPD (PaxScan 4030CB, Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT, USA) and a pulsed X-ray generator (DHF-155HII with Cineradiography option, Hitachi Medical Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). All participants were scanned in the standing position and instructed to breathe normally in a relaxed way without deep inspiration or expiration (tidal breathing). The exposure conditions were as follows: tube voltage, 100 kV; tube current, 50 mA; pulse duration of pulsed X-ray, 1.6 ms; source-to-image distance, 2 m; additional filter, 0.5 mm Al + 0.1 mm Cu. The additional filter was used to filter out soft X-rays. The exposure time was approximately 10–15 seconds. The pixel size was 388 × 388 µm, the matrix size was 1024  × 768, and the overall image area was 40 × 30 cm. The gray-level range of the images was 16,384 (14 bits), and the signal intensity was proportional to the incident exposure of the X-ray detector. The dynamic image data, captured at 15 frames/s, were synchronized with the pulsed X-ray. The pulsed X-ray prevented excessive radiation exposure to the subjects. The entrance surface dose was approximately 0.3–0.5 mGy.

Pathogen adaptation possibly resulting from immune

Pathogen adaptation, possibly resulting from immune-driven selective pressure of aP vaccines, has been considered as one of the plausible explanations for the resurgence of pertussis [29] and [30]. Selective pressure could result in bacteria with increased virulence or the ability to evade protective immune responses. Evolutionary studies using SNPs classified B. pertussis isolates into 6 main clusters named I through VI [29] and [31]. Genotyping studies have shown that the predominant strains currently circulating in developed countries belong to cluster I, defined by the presence of certain SNPs. The expansion of cluster I was associated with genetic changes in the PT hdac inhibitor and the emergence of pertactin (Prn) deficient strains. Importantly, the PT and Prn protein variants found in cluster I strains are different from those of the strain used to manufacture aP vaccines in many countries. Changes in the PT promoter (from ptxP1to ptxP3) have been linked to increased production of PT and several other virulence factors [31]. Mixed infection in a mouse model demonstrated that Prn-negative strains can evade immunity induced by aP more effectively than Prn-positive strains [32]. Prn-deficient strains, first reported in France in 2012 [33], have now been described in many countries [34] and [35]. Emergence of Prn-deficient strains has been suggested to play a role in the resurgence of pertussis in the USA. Screening of a large number of pertussis isolates throughout the USA provided evidence of a substantial increase in the prevalence of Prn-deficient isolates to more than 50% of those collected in 2012 [36]. The odds ratio of having pertussis disease by Prn-deficient strains was significantly higher (adjusted OR = 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.0) in vaccinated compared with unvaccinated cases of pertussis [34], providing evidence for a possible selective advantage of Prn-deficient strains. No correlation between Prn-negative strains and disease symptoms was observed.
Differences in the type of immune response generated by aP vaccine as compared to wP vaccine have also been suggested to contribute to the increase in infection and transmission of B. pertussis. The baboon model has increased our understanding of pertussis vaccines, particularly the observation that aP vaccines protect from disease but not colonization [42]. This model also showed that wP vaccine provide some protection from colonization, while previous disease gives sterilizing protection. This allows aP-vaccinated animals to transmit pertussis to naïve animals. Transmission of B. pertussis may be thus greater in aP vaccinated populations than wP-vaccinated populations.
Other factors such as variable vaccine uptake, the availability of more sensitive diagnostic methods, increased awareness of disease, household transmission, increasing number of non-medically exempted children and inadequate adult booster dose coverage also contribute to the resurgence of pertussis in various populations.