Tag Archives: glycogen synthase kinase

br A review of the literature in evaluation

A review of the literature in evaluation of multi-attribute decision procedures
There are many text books and articles that present, review, compare, or attempt to evaluate, alternative multi-attribute decision procedures, as mentioned above. An early and good endeavor in this regard is presented by Hwang and Yoon  [8], who described many of the well-known MCDA methods, and compared the results of their applications on same example problems. A more recent endeavor of a similar nature belongs to Triantaphyllou  [4], who compares cases of MCDA, theoretically, empirically, and critically.
Triantaphyllou and Mann  [13] compare four MCDA methods, namely; weighted sum model, weighted product model, the Analytic Hierarch Process (AHP), and the revised analytic hierarch process, based on two criteria. One of these criteria was “to remain an accurate method in a single dimension case if it happens to be accurate in a multi-dimensional one”. The other criterion was “the glycogen synthase kinase of the method in yielding the same outcome when a non-optimal alternative was replaced with a worse alternative”. They simulated decision problems randomly, and reached a paradox of deciding on a single best method. They, also, presented the results of the comparisons of the four methods, without resolving the seeming paradox. We will refer to this work, again, later, in Section  3.4.
Buede and Maxwell  [14] compared the top-ranked options resulting from the Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT), AHP, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and a fuzzy algorithm, in a series of simulation experiments. These experiments demonstrated that MAVT and AHP identified the same alternatives as “best”. The other methods were found less consistent with MAVT. Moreover, they also echoed the point that other issues, such as problem structuring and weight determination, may be more important in the solution of the problem than the choice between computational algorithms.
Triantaphyllou and Mann  [13], despite showing their doubt about finding the “perfect” MCDA method, have encouraged users to be aware of main controversies in this field. They, further, assert that despite the continuous search for finding the best MCDA method, research in this area of decision making is critical and valuable.
Guitouni and Martel  [6] describe that none of the MCDA methods can be considered the “super method”, appropriate to all decision making situations. They argue that the existence of numerous methods for the solution of multi-criteria decision problems show that these methods did not produce good recommendations in all cases. They criticize the current practice of familiarity and affinity with a specific method, leading to the choice of MCDA method for the solution of a problem, as being non-productive, since Pleistocene adapts the problem to the method, and not vice versa. They also note that surveying all different methods is practically impossible. Furthermore, they propose a conceptual framework for guiding the choice among MCDA methods for a decision making situation. They stress that these guidelines cannot be considered as criteria. They, then, compared several well-known MCDA procedures based on these guidelines, considering their work as a first step in a methodological approach to select a proper MCDA method to a specific decision making situation.
Guitouni et al.  [15] state none of the MCDA procedures is perfect, nor applicable, to all decision problems. They, also, call the identification of a specific MCDA method to a specific decision situation, a challenge. They assess a framework for choice engineering of a MCDA procedure to a decision-making situation, in which they associate different glycogen synthase kinase MCDA procedures with a pair of (input, output), and where inputs (outputs) characterize the admissible (produced) information by a MCDA procedure.
Zanakis et al.  [16] studied a decision matrix of criteria weights and rankings of alternatives on each criterion. They investigated the performance of 8 methods, namely elimination et choice translating reality (ELECTRE), TOPSIS, Multiplicative Exponential Weighting (MEW), Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), and four versions of AHP. They administered a simulation comparison of the selected methods, with parameters as the number of alternatives, number of criteria, and their distributions. They analyzed the solutions with the help of 12 measures of similarity of performance, through which similarities and differences in the behavior of the methods are investigated.

br Materials and methods br Results and discussion br

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

The continuous precipitation of glycogen synthase kinase particles was investigated in two CSTRs operated in series for the first time at room temperature (ambient conditions were used with an objective of saving the energy requirements) in the presence and absence of ultrasonic irradiations. The effect of various operating parameters such as Ca(OH)2 concentration, CO2 flow rate and Ca(OH)2 slurry flow rate on the particle size and morphology of CaCO3 was investigated for both the synthesis approaches. It was established that the particle size of CaCO3 in the carbonation reaction was dependent on the operating parameters and also use of ultrasound made a distinct effect on the morphology and the final particle size. Smaller particles of calcium carbonate with a narrower particle size distribution were obtained for the approach based on the use of ultrasound as compared to the conventional approach. For both the approaches, the particle size decreased with an increase in the concentration of Ca(OH)2, CO2 flow rate as well as slurry flow rate. XRD and FTIR analysis confirmed that only calcite phase of CaCO3 was formed for both the synthesis approaches. It was also established that the shape of the crystals varied with the synthesis approach. Rhombohedral calcite particles were formed in the presence of ultrasound while conventional stirring based approach of synthesis resulted in spindle like particles. Overall the current work has clearly established the utility of ultrasound assisted approach with two reactors in series for obtaining lower mean size of particles as compared to the conventional approach of synthesis also giving higher capacity for processing as compared to the single reactor based approach.

Understanding and characterization of the wettability of a surface by a liquid is a process of great scientific as well as industrial importance. The wetting of solid surfaces by liquids is the governing phenomenon in processes such as lubrication, coatings, printing, detergency, separations process, and manufacture of composite materials [1–4].
Wettability is the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, resulting from the molecular interaction of the solid with the liquid. The degree of wettability is determined by the balance of forces of adhesion and cohesion between the surfaces involved in the interface. The greater the wettability the greater are the adhesion forces between the solid and liquid. This proposal, called the force treatment of the wettability process, is supported by several scientists like Extrand [5] and Lichao Gao [6], who proposed that the force per unit length gives a more clear understanding of the wettability phenomena and the hysteresis produced when the advancing and receding contact angle are measured. This last point of view allows the vector sum leading to the well-known Young relationship. It should be noted that a vector sum like that shown in Fig. 1 must be made only if the forces are applied at one point, in this case the point where the three interfaces, solid, liquid, and gas meet. There are other scientists like Wenzel [7] and Cassie [8] who introduce other points of view, suggesting that the balance of surface energies are the governing mechanism describing the wettability phenomena. It is interesting to point out that the controversy between the two points of view is alive until our days. However, the great interest of this controversy will not be treated in this paper because the experimental emphasis of this research leaves it out of its scope.
Numerous methods have been developed to measure the forces involved in the phenomenon of wettability, e.g., Wilhelmy plate and Du Nouy ring [9]. These methods allow measuring the cohesive strength of a liquid and a surface at equilibrium as well as in a dynamic way.
Moreover, each material has a specific energy and expresses different surface adhesion forces when in contact with a liquid, the magnitude of these forces depends not only on the nature of both, but also on the history of wetting, porosity, and chemical properties. This makes it difficult to know all the real surface energies and their balance of forces. In addition, there are other problems with the surface wetting, since there is not a perfectly smooth surface, and regardless of the polishing efforts that are made, a surface will always have some degree of roughness, making it difficult to assess the real dimensions of a wetted surface. For instance, if a solid surface is roughened so that a unit plane geometrical area has an actual surface area σ times that of the “smooth” surface, the measured contact angle obtained from will be termed “apparent contact angle”. This denomination may be considered somewhat arbitrary, however, the surface area of a solid liquid interface is unique and can always be identified with its plane geometrical area [10].