Tag Archives: glibenclamide

Intratumor heterogeneity ITH at the genetic level is

Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) at the genetic level is defined as the presence of genetically different clones in different subpopulations of the same tumor [4]. RCC is known to be a heterogeneous tumor, and ITH in RCC had been demonstrated over two decades ago [5]. Several studies have shown the existence of ITH among primary and metastatic lesions by identifying the differences in the rates of von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) mutations and copy number changes of other chromosomes [6,7]. These differences at the genomic level is a key mechanism in the differential response to pharmacotherapy and treatment resistance.

Methods

Results

Conclusion

Introduction
Urothelial carcinoma of the glibenclamide is the fourth most common malignancy in men, with about 70% being non–muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Although NMIBC is associated with a more than 88% survival rate over 5 years, up to 70% of NMIBC recur after initial treatment, with 10%–20% progressing to muscle-invasive bladder cancer [1]. The high rate of recurrence with current therapies requires lifelong active surveillance, making bladder cancer the most expensive cancer to treat from diagnosis to death [2].
The current standard of treatment for NMIBC is transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) with or without intravesical therapy, such as mitomycin C (MMC) or Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), determined by the stage and grade of tumor. Intravesical BCG is the standard of care for patients with intermediate- to high-risk NMIBC. However, it is known that about 50% of patients fail BCG, significantly increasing the risk of progression and death [3]. Patients who fail BCG then require either surgical removal of the bladder with urinary diversion or chemotherapy and radiation, both of which have considerable morbidity. Furthermore, the recent termination of future BCG production at Sanofi Pasteur threaten global supply of BCG [4]. Current therapies for bladder cancer have high rates of progression and recurrence, definitive therapy requires drastic change in quality of life, and the future potential for a BCG shortage, there are several reasons to urgently pursue new therapies in patients with NMIBC [5]. Here we present a review of current or recently completed trials in NMIBC highlighting the many strategies being used to treat bladder cancer in both patients who are BCG-naive and who fail BCG.

Methods
This is a systematic review of currently active clinical trials and recently completed clinical trials (between 2014 and 2017) in NMIBC. We queried clinicaltrials.gov and pubmed.gov using the keywords “non-muscle invasive bladder cancer” and “bladder cancer” to search for the trials. The last review of the trials was performed on February 12, 2017. The trials were primarily categorized by the BCG status of the enrolled patients as self-described by the trials on clinicaltrials.org, which may differ from the emerging definition as described by Kamat et al. [6] Therefore, trials involving BCG-refractory or BCG-relapsing NMIBC have been grouped under “BCG unresponsive”. Further organization is based on therapy type—cytotoxic therapies, vaccines, gene therapy, immunomodulators, targeted therapy, and drug delivery. Within each therapy type, the trials were organized by the study status—completed, active with closed enrollment, and active with open enrollment.

Conclusion
In this review, we discussed the ongoing and recently completed clinical trials involving the BCG-naive, BCG-refractory/recurrent, and BCG-naive or -refractory NMIBC. NMIBC remains a very challenging disease to treat, requiring extensive follow-up after diagnosis and initial treatment. The patients who are in even more peril are those who have failed BCG therapy, as they have a very high chance of progression. Given this high rate of recurrence and progression, especially in the face of the potential BCG vaccine shortage, the need to explore new avenues in treating NMIBC has never been more urgent. Evident by this review, many novel treatments ranging from targeting specific mutations or gene amplifications to gene therapy to immunotherapy are currently being tested in clinical trials in the setting of NMIBC. As our understanding of bladder cancer continues to evolve and new therapeutic approaches are developed, it will be crucial to utilize molecular subtyping in designing future studies and predicting treatment response in patients, as evident by some recent work in MIBC [63]. Additionally, going forward, it will be critical to standardize the clinical outcomes across trials, as emphasized and described by Kamat et al. [6] The ongoing efforts in this field are very encouraging, and the outlook for finding more effective therapies look very promising.

br Results br Conclusion br Acknowledgement This work was supported

Results

Conclusion

Acknowledgement
This work was supported in part by the Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No.61471216 and in part by the Special Foundation for the Development of Strategic Emerging Industries of Shenzhen under Grant No.JCYJ20150831192224146 and No.JCYJ20150601165744635.

Introduction
Image classification is a significant branch of computer vision. In this branch, the representation based classification methods have attracted considerable attention. A good representation for target images is greatly beneficial to improve the performance of image classification [1,2]. An object can be distinguished from the others when its image is well represented by the other images from this object. The combination of multiple representations of images is an effective method to improve the performance of representation based methods [3,4]. Therefore, it glibenclamide is an important and meaningful topic to find a proper representation for representation based image classification methods.
At present, face recognition has been studied widely and many useful methods have been presented [5–9]. However, we still face with some great challenges. Different poses and expressions, various intensities of illuminations and insufficient training samples seriously influence the recognition effects. In order to address these challenges, people have made many efforts. For various illuminations, by handling the original images to enhance pixels with moderate intensities of the original images and reduce the importance of other pixels, Xu et al. [10] obtained the complementary images to improve the accuracy of image classification. Producing the mirror image of the face and integrating the original face image and its mirror image are also useful to improve the recognition accuracy of representation-based face recognition [11]. For the problem of insufficient training samples, Huang et al. [12] proposed a robust kernel collaborative representation classification method based on virtual samples for face recognition to reduce the influence of insufficient training samples. The use of symmetrical face images generated from original face images is very useful to overcome the problem of varying appearances of faces [13,14]. Until now, many works focus on generating virtual or synthesized face images to enhance the recognition accuracy [15–19]. The simultaneous use of original face images and their virtual face images can improve the accuracy of face recognition. What is more, several works have shown that virtual image obtained by exploiting the adjacent rows of original image are also useful for image classification [20–24].
Wright et al. [25] proposed the sparse representation classification (SRC) algorithm which can reach satisfactory result. There are many SRC algorithms [26–30]. However, the original SRC algorithm with the constraint of l minimization is time consuming. Zhang et al. [31] proved that the essence to obtain the satisfactory performance of the SRC algorithm is the collaborative representation but not the sparsity, and proposed a collaborative representation classification (CRC) method with the constraint of l minimization. CRC methods can obtain comparative performance to SRC algorithm, but is much faster than SRC algorithm. Various representation methods with the constraints of l minimization are also proposed, such as linear regression classification (LRC) [32], and two phase sparse representation [33–35]. They not only used simple constraint conditions but also achieved satisfactory recognition accuracy.
The remainder of Helper virus paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents the proposed novel representation method of images. Section 3 describes the underlying rationale of the proposed method. Section 4 shows the experimental results. Section 5 provides the conclusions of this paper.

The proposed method

In parallel to this singular and proper to

In parallel to this singular and proper to ZnO multi-functionality, it has the additional specificity of being able to be synthesized in various shapes within its nano-scaled form such as nano-spheres, nano-tetrapods, nano-platelets, nano-discs, nano-rings, nano-belts, nano-wires, nano-rods, nanotubes … [70]. Relatively to oxides family, it is effortless to grow oriented ZnO nano-rods on several type of crystalline or amorphous substrates by various physical or chemical processes. This later exceptional quality of ZnO to be grown in the attractive form of oriented nano-rods combined with its intrinsic UV sensitivity related to its surface oxygen photo-activity, could be used to design photo-induced reversible hydrophilic/hydrophobic surfaces. As it will be shown below in this section, this exceptional tunable hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of ZnO nano-rods deposited onto a substrate is related to the surface roughness of the deposit itself as depicted in Fig. 9. Indeed, the trick to reach super-hydrophobic states consists of achieving rough (or textured) hydrophobic solids (Fig. 10). Because the liquid doesn\’t enter inside the roughness, a drop sits on a patchwork of solid and air, which leads to contact angles typically between 165° and 175°. More interestingly, this effect is also characterized by a very low contact angle hysteresis (Δθ < 10°), because the air trapped below the drop “homogenizes” the solid. Hence, the surface roughness of such ZnO nano-rods has a considerable influence on both the contact angle itself and its hysteresis. An important aspect is the length scale involved. For not too rough surfaces (s significantly below the wavelength of light λ), the effect of surface roughness can be ascribed by the so-called Wenzel equation [72]. The equation predicts that if a molecularly hydrophobic surface is rough, the appearance is that of an even more hydrophobic surface. If a glibenclamide surface is roughened it becomes more hydrophilic. Most solid surface are also chemically inhomogeneous and in that regard Cassie considered such ###http://www.apexbt.com//media/diy/images/structpng/A1005.png####a case of a smooth but chemically patch wise heterogeneous surface [73]. Consequentially, if there are two different kinds of region with contact angle θ1 and θ2 as depicted in Fig. 10c, which occupy the surface ratios f1 and f2 the apparent average contact angle is cosθapparent = f1cosθ1 + f2cosθ2. θ1 and θ2 are the Young contact angles on large domains of 1 and 2, respectively [74]. For drop coexisting with an impregnating the solid texture, f1 = fS, θ1 = θ, f2 = 1 − fS and θ2 = 0, fS is the surface area of the second stage (i.e. the top of the spikes, or the top of the ridges) normalized by the total surface area of the sample (fS < 1) so that the effective contact angle to be given by the relation [75] ;  [76]: cosθapparent = −1 + fS (cosθ + 1). As a direct application in this section, acetyl CoA shown that Cassie–Baxter type oriented ZnO nano-rods structures exhibit unique photo-induced and tunable wettability of water droplets under UV radiations. It demonstrates that the wettability of milli and micro-droplets of water onto nano-structured ZnO surfaces can be optically controlled in a reversible way. More accurately, this section reports on controllable wettability of water droplets onto aligned W-doped ZnO nanorods films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. These 1-D inorganic oxide films exhibit hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity at different conditions, while the wettability can be reversibly switched by UV irradiation. Such a special wettability would further the applications of ZnO films to additional important fields such as biology and photonics. While the water wettability is related to the texture of doped ZnO nano-rods, the UV photo-activity seems to be caused by the polarity of the ZnO basal surfaces. If this argument is valid, the wettability would be crystallographic orientation dependent not only in the case of ZnO but common to other oxides such as nano-scaled TiO2.