Tag Archives: fluoxetine hydrochloride

br Disubstituted quinolines have been synthesized according to

2,4-Disubstituted quinolines [19] have been synthesized according to Meyer-Schuster rearrangement (Sarma and Prajapati, 2008). In this method 2-aminoaryl ketones and phenylacetylenes rearrange in the presence of a catalytic amount of zinc trifluoromethanesulfonate in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylilmidazolium hexafluorophosphate [hmim][PF6] resulting in 2,4-disubstituted quinolines. The same product has also been obtained in the presence of indium(III)trifluoromethanesulfonate (In(CF3SO3)3) under microwave irradiation without any solvent (Lekhok et al., 2008).

Palladium-catalysed Wacker-type oxidative cyclization has been proposed for the synthesis of 2-methylquinolines [20] with good yields under mild conditions (Wang et al., 2011).

Poly-substituted quinolines [21] have been developed by the reaction of 2-aminobenzylic alcohol derivatives with ketones or alcohols in the presence of base and benzophenone as hydride scavenger (Martinez et al., 2008).

2,4-Disubstituted quinolines [22] have been synthesized by cyclization of 2-iodoanilines with alkynyl aryl ketones in the presence of nickel catalyst (Chen et al., 2006).

Horn et al. (2008) reported synthesis of quinolines [23] from α,β-unsaturated ketones and o-aminophenylboronic fluoxetine hydrochloride derivatives which is a modification of the traditional Skraup-Doebner-von Miller synthesis. The method has an advantage that it can proceed under basic conditions rather than strongly acidic conditions.

The reaction of benzimidoyl chlorides with 1-(1-(allyloxy)prop-2-ynyl)benzene (1,6-enynes) forms quinoline derivatives [24] via palladium-catalysed Sonogashira coupling and subsequent cyclization (Gao et al., 2010).

Intramolecular cyclization of 1-azido-2-(2-propynyl)benzene in the presence of electrophilic reagents in nitromethane (CH3NO2) at room temperature or in the presence of catalytic amounts of AuCl3/AgNTf2 in THF at 100°C gives corresponding quinolines [25] in good yields (Huo et al., 2010).

Biological activity

Malpractice is a type of negligence that may arise from a professional’s misconduct or failure to use adequate levels of care, skill or diligence in his performance, and further failing to follow generally accepted professional standards, and that breach of duty is the proximate cause of injury to a plaintiff who suffers harm. And when that takes place in the health care system, only then would it be health threatening, and thus worthy of investigating.
In 1978, a law regulating the profession of pharmacy in Saudi Arabia was passed. The law demanded professionalization of pharmacy performance and precluded the practice of pharmacy by persons other than licensed pharmacists. Furthermore a pharmacist is required to dispense drugs on prescription only, except those defined as OTC (Bawazir, 1992). This is of main concern; as an earlier study conducted by Al-Freihi et al. (1987), found that 85.4% of pharmacies dispensed antibiotics (a class known to be a prescription-only drug) promptly. Unfortunately, a study directed by S.Bawazeir in Riyadh in 1992 stated that more than 35% of drugs dispensed over-the-counter were prescription drugs (Bawazir, 1992). These findings draw high attention to the possible misuse of non-OTC drugs by the community, especially when no serious actions have been taken within the 5 years that separated these two studies.
On top of that, a more recent study conducted by Al Ghamdi, in 2001 surmised that despite the lack of pharmacist’s adherence to the pharmaceutical law, which represented (98.9%), it did not indicate that they had abused their patients (Al-Ghamdi, 2001). Sadly this can only lead to further negligence of the law.

Betwen December 2010- January 2011 retail pharmacies in Jeddah-KSA were visited randomly by a number of voluntary collaborators who played the role of asking for one or more of the following medications mainly by name ; without providing a prescription:or alternatively by mentioning the chief complaint of either sore throat or depression. For the purpose of the study, Jeddah was divided into three main regions according to the abundance of pharmacies within each region (North 40%, center 30% and south 30%) covering a total of 60 pharmacies, and further sub-divided into chain, single and hospital pharmacies. During the training of the collaborators on how to perform the study’s scenario, they were advised not to insist in case the medication was not dispensed or if the pharmacist asked for a prescription, in order not to influence the pharmacist’s decision.