Tag Archives: cox 2 inhibitor

br Introduction Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory response

Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory response of the udder, caused mainly by colonization by microbial pathogens. The susceptibility of cows to mastitis is affected by some factors, including the cow’s age, genetic traits, and stage of lactation and nutrition (Sordillo, 2005). This disease has been associated with different levels of economic losses in dairy cattle in different countries. Argentina has been classified as the 17th main milk-producer country in the world (Tiwari et al., 2013). However, in this country, mastitis is still a serious problem, causing more than $0.99/cow/day economic losses for farmers (Vissio et al., 2015). This scenario is worryingly higher than the previously published average economic losses assessed by farmers (Huijps et al., 2008).
Currently, antibiotic therapy is the most common treatment of bovine mastitis-infected dairy cows. However, some of the serious problems associated with this therapy include the low cure rate, the bacterial resistance and the presence of antimicrobial residues in milk (Gomes and Henriques, 2016). A recently evaluated strategy to substitute the administration of cox 2 inhibitor is the use of natural compounds produced by bacteria. The use of microbiota from healthy organisms has previously shown interesting results in both animals and humans (Bouchard et al., 2015; Iwase et al., 2010).
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a group of bacteria classified as either minor mastitis pathogens or commensal microbiota. Until recently, it was difficult to draw consistent conclusions about the relevance of CNS in bovine udder health. Some studies considered CNS as true mastitis pathogens, although most were retrieved from subclinical mastitis cases (Pyörälä and Taponen, 2009), whereas others considered CNS to be commensal bacteria with limited or absent negative effects on SCC, milk quality, and milk production (De Vliegher et al., 2012). It has been previously recognized that CNS play an important role in the establishment of the cow’s microbiome, suggesting specific antibacterial activities in competition against pathogenic strains (Braem et al., 2014).
Biofilms have been proposed as an important virulence factor, involved in the development and maintenance of intramammary infections (Gomes et al., 2016). A biofilm is defined as a sessile microbial community where cells are adhered to a biotic or abiotic surface and embedded in a protective extracellular matrix. The biofilm lifestyle seems to play an important role during bacterial infection, providing defense against the host immune system and resistance to antimicrobial treatment (de la Fuente-Núñez et al., 2013; Scherr et al., 2014). Antibiotic therapies for biofilm-associated infections usually require high doses for prolonged times and they often fail (Wu et al., 2014). Thus, the development and discovery of new anti-biofilm agents is currently an urgent demand for clinical practice. Anti-biofilm compounds may act in prevention treatments by blocking biofilm formation or disrupting the microbial community within a biofilm (Ribeiro et al., 2016). Several microorganisms produce and release different compounds to combat pathogenic bacterial biofilms, including molecules that interfere with bacterial communication and signaling and enzymes capable of degrading the extracellular matrix components. An important feature of these microorganisms is their non-microbicidal mechanism of action, not placing an evolutionary pressure to develop bacterial resistance (Blackledge et al., 2013).

Materials and methods


Mastitis is considered the most relevant pathology in lactating cows and responsible for major economic losses in the dairy industry worldwide (Melchior et al., 2006). In Argentina, mastitis control has been significantly improved in the last years, but sub-clinical mastitis is still a serious problem (Vissio et al., 2015). The dairy farm studied was in accordance with this feature, because a high prevalence of sub-clinically infected quarters was confirmed. The identification of the bacterial isolates revealed results similar to previous reports, with CNS and S. aureus as the most relevant groups of minor and major mastitis–associated pathogens respectively (Dieser et al., 2013).

br Recently novel oral anticoagulants NOACs such as

Recently, novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban have become available. All NOACs have been shown to be superior to or noninferior to warfarin in preventing stroke and systemic thromboembolism, whereas they cox 2 inhibitor consistently showed significantly less incidence of intracranial and extracranial hemorrhages than did warfarin (references of Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulant Therapy (RE-LY), Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF), and Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) studies). Especially, the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke was markedly less in patients treated with NOACs than in those treated with warfarin. These aspects of cox 2 inhibitor new anticoagulants would affect the choices of both patients and physicians.


An important limitation of studies such as this, which rely on stated choices as opposed to actual choices, is that people are not required to experience the trade-offs they are asked to make in the choice questions. We tried to minimize any potential bias from the hypothetical nature of the questions by presenting a choice setting and treatment alternatives that mimic real-world treatment-decision contexts as closely as possible.

Second, preference estimates inferred through treatment choices are influenced by patients’ and physicians’ interpretation of the event definitions in the survey, including all-cause death, which we used to normalize the importance weights for respondents in different samples. We attempted to mitigate problems of misinterpretation of the events by consulting with clinical experts in the field of AF and conducting in-person interviews with patients with AF and physicians.

Third, there are no formal power calculations for testing differences in preferences using discrete-choice experiments. Although an experimental design was used to optimize the preference information obtained from choice questions, statistical significance is partly determined by nonstatistical factors such as measurement and preference heterogeneity. For this reason, lack of statistical significance in the differences of preferences among US patients and physicians should be interpreted with caution because homeobox genes is possible that larger sample sizes could have yielded significant differences.

Finally, no action was taken to ensure the representativeness of any of the samples on a national level, potentially limiting the generalizability of the survey results.

Source of financial support: Bayer Yakuhin, Ltd.

China; cost-effectiveness analysis; epilepsy; health-related quality of life; willingness to pay


Epilepsy, as a chronic disorder, has considerable negative impact on people’s day-to-day functioning [1], including impact on cognitive function, self-esteem, and excessive psychological burden (e.g., depression and anxiety) [2]; [3] ;  [4]. Meanwhile, epilepsy is also well recognized to pose a heavy economic burden on the society and the individual, as indicated in many cost-of-illness studies [5]; [6]; [7]; [8]; [9] ;  [10]. Although the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with epilepsy, however, has been investigated in a series of studies, most of these studies were performed in developed countries. Within the developing countries, the relatively few studies that unanimously adopted epilepsy-specific or generic non–preference-based instruments (e.g., Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-89 (QOLIE-89, QOLIE-31, short-form 36 health survey, and WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) to assess the HRQOL [11]; [12]; [13]; [14] ;  [15], from those measures, consequently, cannot be integrated into cost-effectiveness analysis.

In contrast, the Quality of Well-being Scale-self-administered version (QWB-SA) and the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) are generic preference-based instruments that could estimate the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). QALY provides a common currency to assess the extent of benefits gained from various interventions, thus allowing comparison of the effectiveness of health technologies for different diseases.