Tag Archives: cox 2 inhibitor

In both types of mobilisation lawyers with different

In both types of mobilisation, lawyers with different statuses, competencies, expertise, and professional backgrounds can be involved in collective action (Prabhat, 2011). In this context, however, it cox 2 inhibitor is important to understand the motives for these activities.
In the literature regarding lawyers\’ collective action, we distinguish two main theoretical frames that explain the motives of lawyers for mobilisation: “cause lawyering”, developed by Sarat and Scheingold (1998), and “political lawyering”, suggested by Halliday, Karpik, and Feeley (2007). The “cause lawyering” approach suggests that lawyers are first and foremost the defenders of ordinary people. Their main function is to protect the “weak side” in a dispute, with the state typically considered to be the strong side. Therefore, cause lawyering is often associated with human rights protection (Hajjar, 1997; Moley, 2014; Ratner, 2007) and “pro bono” work (Granfield, 2007; Sandefur, 2007). Political lawyering is instead focused on the relations between the legal profession and the state. Lawyers trying to change the system in order to get some privileges is one example. Political lawyering has many similarities with professional lobbying (Paik, Heinz, & Southworth, 2011), which is usually well organised and based on a high level of economic and social capital. In this regard, a discussion of political lawyering is similar to the literature concerning the concept of “professional projects” and attempts by professionals to “monopolise” the market (Evetts, 2003; Freidson, 1984; Gobe, 2013).
For cause lawyering, such as pro bono work or human rights protection, the internal motives of lawyers are very important (Boukalas, 2013), because economic goals cannot explain provision of legal services free of charge. Therefore, this approach is more closely associated with the vast literature devoted to legal ethics (Abbott, 1983; Beggs & Dean, 2007; Overman & Foss, 1991) and principle agent problems between lawyers and their clients (Kritzer, 1998; Marshall & Hale, 2014; Moorhead, Paterson, & Sherr, 2003; Pepper, 1986; Sarat & Felstiner, 1988). Sociologists usually consider the nature of attorneys\’ work in terms of a “contract” between society and professionals; according to this contract, society provides high status and privileges, while professionals obey professional ethics (Evetts, 2003, 400). This tacit contract is necessary because neither society nor professional groups are capable of completely controlling the quality of the professionals\’ work. This partial control is also why professional ethics and oversight are key to any profession, including advocates (see Abbott, 1983).
Conversely external causes play a decisive role for “political lawyering”. According to this approach, the weak institutional position of Russian advocacy – manifested in frequent violations of defendant rights by law enforcement – can be as serious a motive for collective action as ethical values. Recently, research regarding lawyers\’ collective action has focused primarily on the United States and countries that share the Anglo-American legal tradition (Kawar, 2011). The experiences of these countries cannot always be used in the analyses of post-communist countries with continental legal systems, however. In Russia, judges and other representatives of the law enforcement system often feel that they are part of the state rather than independent agents (Solomon, 2005).
A “logic of professionals” (in terms of Freidson) is characteristic of different representatives of the legal profession to different degrees. The prosecution and the courts in Russia are particularly exposed to bureaucratic logic and influenced by it. (Volkov, 2012) provides numerous examples of hierarchical practices in court decisions. The heavy-handed system of reporting that persists among law enforcement officers and judges (Paneyakh, 2014) is another manifestation of the fact that the formal level of professional control in these groups prevails over informal peer control or self-control through the adherence to ethical standards. Formal regulations in these segments overrule all other considerations, and therefore bureaucratic logic is thriving.

br Introduction Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory response

Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory response of the udder, caused mainly by colonization by microbial pathogens. The susceptibility of cows to mastitis is affected by some factors, including the cow’s age, genetic traits, and stage of lactation and nutrition (Sordillo, 2005). This disease has been associated with different levels of economic losses in dairy cattle in different countries. Argentina has been classified as the 17th main milk-producer country in the world (Tiwari et al., 2013). However, in this country, mastitis is still a serious problem, causing more than $0.99/cow/day economic losses for farmers (Vissio et al., 2015). This scenario is worryingly higher than the previously published average economic losses assessed by farmers (Huijps et al., 2008).
Currently, antibiotic therapy is the most common treatment of bovine mastitis-infected dairy cows. However, some of the serious problems associated with this therapy include the low cure rate, the bacterial resistance and the presence of antimicrobial residues in milk (Gomes and Henriques, 2016). A recently evaluated strategy to substitute the administration of cox 2 inhibitor is the use of natural compounds produced by bacteria. The use of microbiota from healthy organisms has previously shown interesting results in both animals and humans (Bouchard et al., 2015; Iwase et al., 2010).
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a group of bacteria classified as either minor mastitis pathogens or commensal microbiota. Until recently, it was difficult to draw consistent conclusions about the relevance of CNS in bovine udder health. Some studies considered CNS as true mastitis pathogens, although most were retrieved from subclinical mastitis cases (Pyörälä and Taponen, 2009), whereas others considered CNS to be commensal bacteria with limited or absent negative effects on SCC, milk quality, and milk production (De Vliegher et al., 2012). It has been previously recognized that CNS play an important role in the establishment of the cow’s microbiome, suggesting specific antibacterial activities in competition against pathogenic strains (Braem et al., 2014).
Biofilms have been proposed as an important virulence factor, involved in the development and maintenance of intramammary infections (Gomes et al., 2016). A biofilm is defined as a sessile microbial community where cells are adhered to a biotic or abiotic surface and embedded in a protective extracellular matrix. The biofilm lifestyle seems to play an important role during bacterial infection, providing defense against the host immune system and resistance to antimicrobial treatment (de la Fuente-Núñez et al., 2013; Scherr et al., 2014). Antibiotic therapies for biofilm-associated infections usually require high doses for prolonged times and they often fail (Wu et al., 2014). Thus, the development and discovery of new anti-biofilm agents is currently an urgent demand for clinical practice. Anti-biofilm compounds may act in prevention treatments by blocking biofilm formation or disrupting the microbial community within a biofilm (Ribeiro et al., 2016). Several microorganisms produce and release different compounds to combat pathogenic bacterial biofilms, including molecules that interfere with bacterial communication and signaling and enzymes capable of degrading the extracellular matrix components. An important feature of these microorganisms is their non-microbicidal mechanism of action, not placing an evolutionary pressure to develop bacterial resistance (Blackledge et al., 2013).

Materials and methods


Mastitis is considered the most relevant pathology in lactating cows and responsible for major economic losses in the dairy industry worldwide (Melchior et al., 2006). In Argentina, mastitis control has been significantly improved in the last years, but sub-clinical mastitis is still a serious problem (Vissio et al., 2015). The dairy farm studied was in accordance with this feature, because a high prevalence of sub-clinically infected quarters was confirmed. The identification of the bacterial isolates revealed results similar to previous reports, with CNS and S. aureus as the most relevant groups of minor and major mastitis–associated pathogens respectively (Dieser et al., 2013).

br Recently novel oral anticoagulants NOACs such as

Recently, novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban have become available. All NOACs have been shown to be superior to or noninferior to warfarin in preventing stroke and systemic thromboembolism, whereas they cox 2 inhibitor consistently showed significantly less incidence of intracranial and extracranial hemorrhages than did warfarin (references of Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulant Therapy (RE-LY), Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF), and Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) studies). Especially, the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke was markedly less in patients treated with NOACs than in those treated with warfarin. These aspects of cox 2 inhibitor new anticoagulants would affect the choices of both patients and physicians.


An important limitation of studies such as this, which rely on stated choices as opposed to actual choices, is that people are not required to experience the trade-offs they are asked to make in the choice questions. We tried to minimize any potential bias from the hypothetical nature of the questions by presenting a choice setting and treatment alternatives that mimic real-world treatment-decision contexts as closely as possible.

Second, preference estimates inferred through treatment choices are influenced by patients’ and physicians’ interpretation of the event definitions in the survey, including all-cause death, which we used to normalize the importance weights for respondents in different samples. We attempted to mitigate problems of misinterpretation of the events by consulting with clinical experts in the field of AF and conducting in-person interviews with patients with AF and physicians.

Third, there are no formal power calculations for testing differences in preferences using discrete-choice experiments. Although an experimental design was used to optimize the preference information obtained from choice questions, statistical significance is partly determined by nonstatistical factors such as measurement and preference heterogeneity. For this reason, lack of statistical significance in the differences of preferences among US patients and physicians should be interpreted with caution because homeobox genes is possible that larger sample sizes could have yielded significant differences.

Finally, no action was taken to ensure the representativeness of any of the samples on a national level, potentially limiting the generalizability of the survey results.

Source of financial support: Bayer Yakuhin, Ltd.

China; cost-effectiveness analysis; epilepsy; health-related quality of life; willingness to pay


Epilepsy, as a chronic disorder, has considerable negative impact on people’s day-to-day functioning [1], including impact on cognitive function, self-esteem, and excessive psychological burden (e.g., depression and anxiety) [2]; [3] ;  [4]. Meanwhile, epilepsy is also well recognized to pose a heavy economic burden on the society and the individual, as indicated in many cost-of-illness studies [5]; [6]; [7]; [8]; [9] ;  [10]. Although the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with epilepsy, however, has been investigated in a series of studies, most of these studies were performed in developed countries. Within the developing countries, the relatively few studies that unanimously adopted epilepsy-specific or generic non–preference-based instruments (e.g., Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-89 (QOLIE-89, QOLIE-31, short-form 36 health survey, and WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) to assess the HRQOL [11]; [12]; [13]; [14] ;  [15], from those measures, consequently, cannot be integrated into cost-effectiveness analysis.

In contrast, the Quality of Well-being Scale-self-administered version (QWB-SA) and the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) are generic preference-based instruments that could estimate the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). QALY provides a common currency to assess the extent of benefits gained from various interventions, thus allowing comparison of the effectiveness of health technologies for different diseases.