Tag Archives: c75

A reading of the main temperance press provides much

A reading of the main temperance press provides much interesting information. The material included Future (Przyszłość) (1905–1914), which was first published in Cracow and then in Warsaw, the Galician Liberation (Wyzwolenie) (1906–1914) and the Abstinence Movement Support Monthly (Miesięcznik dla Popierania Ruchu Wstrzemięźliwości) (1903–1910) published in Pleszew in the Prussian Partition. These titles are the press c75 of the largest and most active temperance associations in Polish lands during the Partition period. All these titles are in the author\’s possession though, due to the dispersed nature of the material, finding them was very difficult. None of the main Polish libraries has a complete set of these periodicals.
Future, from 5th October to 3rd November 1905, represented the Galician Society for Total Abstinence from Alcoholic Beverages “Eleuteria” (Towarzystwo Zupełnej Wstrzemięźliwości od Napojów Alkoholowych „Eleuteria”). Between 1907 and 1914, it was published in the Congress Kingdom and was the press organ of the Society for Total Abstinence from Alcoholic Beverages “Future”. An estimated circulation of the periodical was of around 1200. It is worth mentioning that Future had two separate additions: one addressed to peasants Future for People (Przyszłość dla Ludu) (April–December 1905), and one monthly dedicated to combatting tobacco smoking Life Free from Tobacco (Życie bez Tytoniu) (April 1906–February 1907).
Another of the analysed periodicals, Liberation, was the press organ of the Society for Total Abstinence from Alcoholic Beverages “Eleuteria” in existence since 1902. In 1905 the Association renamed itself “Eleuteria–Liberation”, and in 1911 was known mainly as “Liberation”. “Eleuteria”, as a sort of temperance movement federation in Galicia in 1910 took care of the following abstinence organs: The Union of Abstinent Priests for Galicia and Bukovina, The Association of Industrial and Artisan Youth under the patronage of St. Stanisław Kostka, The “Sobriety” Association, The Association of Abstinent Railway Workers and The Union of Hope, “Ethos” and “Eleusis”. From 1912, it also cared for the moral rebirth of Galician Scouts. Liberation had an initial estimated circulation of 1000 that rose to 3000 in 1912.
The Abstinence Movement Support Monthly was at first the only press organ of the Union of Abstinent Priests. From 1907 it also represented the secular Society for Total Abstinence from Alcoholic Beverages “Liberation” operating in the Prussian Partition and among émigré Poles, mainly living in Germany. This also appeared in a circulation of around 1000.
The scientific literature does not contain much on the matter of combatting alcoholism among railway workers. However, one worthwhile article was published by Renata Bednarz-Grzybek, Izabela Krasińska and Piotr Sławiński – The Abstinent Railway Workers League between 1929–1939. Though the article at least in part deals with these issues, its chronological range is entirely different, as is the territory of study undertaken. The article\’s range of discussion is also narrower. The authors focus mainly on showing the activity of the Abstinence Railway Workers League, an organisation operating in Poland in the inter-war years.

Discussion
The titles above present, certainly as a warning, perilous railway accidents that had occurred due to railway workers’ abuse drinking. For example, there was a railway crash in Silesia in 1895 in which the drunk driver did not break in time, resulting in the train breaking through a wall and stopping in the station waiting room. The accident resulted in a number of deaths and many injuries. The article author draws attention to the problem of employing candidates to work on the railways. His opinion was that only the “absolutely abstinent” ought to be employed as work on the railways can demand responsibility and be hard and exhausting [13].

br Introduction Porcine circovirus PCV is

Introduction
Porcine circovirus (PCV) is a small non-enveloped virus containing a circular, single-stranded DNA c75 that belongs to the genus Circovirus of the family Circoviridae. Two species of circovirus have been recognized as infectious to pigs, including PCV type 1 (PCV1) and PCV type 2 (PCV2). PCV1 was first identified as a contaminant of PK-15 cell cultures, and it is known to be nonpathogenic for pigs (Tischer et al., 1986). Unlike PCV1, PCV2 infection in pigs causes various clinical diseases, resulting in huge economic losses for the swine industry (Opriessnig et al., 2007). Clinical manifestations of PCV2 infection are collectively termed PCV2-associated disease (PCVAD), which includes post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), and reproductive failure. In Korea, PCV2 was first identified in pigs exhibiting PWMS in 1999, and has now become one of the most ubiquitous pathogens in swine herds (Kwon et al., 2017).
Recently, metagenomics analysis identified a novel porcine circovirus, designated porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3), from a case of PDNS and reproductive c75 failure (Palinski et al., 2017). PCV3 was also detected in pigs with cardiac and multi-systemic inflammation (Phan et al., 2016). Despite increasing concerns regarding PCV3, the distribution of this virus is poorly understood in Korea. The aim of this study was to determine the nationwide prevalence and genetic characteristics of PCV3 using pen-based oral fluid samples.

Materials & methods
A total of 360 pen-based oral fluid samples (a pen consists of approximately 20 pigs) were collected from 73 different farms in 2016. The samples originated from six geographic provinces and were divided into four groups, specifically, weaned (67/360), growing (136/360), finisher (124/360), and sick pigs (33/360). All pig farms were commercial farrow-to-finisher farms with 200 to 500 sows, and these were randomly selected. The clinical history and disease status of each farm was not scrutinized. The samples were centrifuged at 3000rpm for 10min to obtain the supernatant. All supernatants were aliquoted and stored at −80°C until further genetic analysis.
Viral DNA was extracted from each oral fluid sample using a commercial DNA extraction kit (Viral Gene-spin, iNtRON Biotechnology Inc., Seongnam, Korea) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. To demonstrate PCV3 DNA in oral fluid samples, conventional PCR assays were performed using a PCV3-specific primer set that targets the ORF2 gene of PCV3 in HS Prime Taq Premix (GeNetBio, Daejeon, Korea); the reaction generated a 330-bp PCR product (Palinski et al., 2017). According to the geographical distribution, strongly positive samples for PCV3 were selected from nine different farms. The full-length genome of nine strains (KU strains) was amplified using two sets of PCV3-specific primers (Table 1). PCR products were directly sequenced in both directions at a commercial sequencing facility (Macrogen Inc, Seoul, Korea). Nine full-length genomes in this study were aligned to those of six US strains and two Chinese strains obtained from GenBank (Thompson et al., 1994). The complete genome-based and ORF2-based maximum likelihood (ML) trees were estimated using the general time reversible (GTR) model with a gamma-distributed rate (four rate categories, 4) and invariant site (I) using the MEGA6 program (Tamura et al., 2013).

Results and discussions
Of 360 pen-based oral fluid samples, 159 samples were positive for PCV3 DNA (44.2%). The highest prevalence among the four groups was recorded from a hospital pen (51.5%). Growing (42.6%) and finisher (41.1%) pig groups had relatively lower prevalence than the weaned group (49.3%). At the farm level, PCV3 DNA was present in 72.6% (53/73) of farms. PCV3 was geographically distributed in all provinces of Korea (Fig. 1).
The complete genome of nine Korean PCV3 strains was 2000 nucleotides (nt) in length, which was identical in size to that of other PCV3 strains. The putative ORF2 of PCV3 was 645nt in length. Korean PCV3 shared 99.2±0.2% (98.9–99.8%) and 98.6±0.5% (97.9–99.8%) identity in the complete genome and ORF2, respectively, when compared to US strains. The identities of the complete genome and ORF2 between Korean PCV3 strains ranged from 99.0% to 99.9% (99.3±0.3%) and 98.1% to 100% (98.8±0.5%), respectively. The cap protein of Korean strains shared 98.7±0.8% (97.6–100%) and 98.8±0.8% (97.6–100%) identities to that of US strains and each other, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all PCV3 strains were closely related to each other (Fig. 2). In both phylogenies, Korean PCV3 strains were scattered without any geographical association based on country. Nine complete genome of PCV3 in this study were deposited in GenBank under accession numbers KY996337–KY996345.