d-xylose We hypothesised that DCV infection will result in corollary

We hypothesised that DCV infection will result in corollary change in miR-956 putative targets that are involved in host-virus interaction. Among the tested 84 putative targets, only the abundance of Ect4 was significantly increased during DCV infection. The RT-PCR array and RT-qPCR both show increased abundance of the Ect4 transcript during DCV infection (Kemp et al., 2013) and this induction is substantially reduced in miR-956 mutant flies. We hypothesised that if miR-956 suppression confers an antiviral effect in Drosophila through post-transcriptional up-regulation of Ect4, decrease in Ect4 should result in earlier DCV-induced mortality and increased DCV accumulation. Comparison of Ect4 mutant flies against wild-type flies showed that DCV-infected Ect4 mutant flies died earlier and accumulated viral genomes compared with DCV-infected wild-type flies. The results provide evidence that the observed Ect4 induction during DCV infection has host-protective and antiviral consequences. In addition, the results suggest that the host-protective and antiviral consequences of Ect4 contributes, at least in part, to the host-virus interaction consequences of decrease in miR-956-3p.
Orthologues of Ect4 have also been found to be up-regulated by various types of infection, for example: bacterial infection of horseshoe crabs (Belinda et al., 2008), amphioxus (Yuan et al., 2010), and mammals (Pudla et al., 2011) and viral infection of shrimps (Wang et al., 2013) and mammals (Mukherjee et al., 2013). Despite Ect4 conservation from species that appeared some 500 millions of years ago to humans, the host-virus interaction functions of Ect4 and its orthologues are still poorly characterised. However, evidence indicates that Ect4 orthologues act as modulators that restore d-xylose after immune response by down-regulating Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling (Belinda et al., 2008; Panneerselvam and Ding, 2015; Peng et al., 2010; Michael et al., 2006). In horseshoe crabs, d-xylose TLR down-regulation by its Ect4 orthologue, CrSARM, suppresses NF-ΚB (Belinda et al., 2008). In humans, TLR down-regulation by its Ect4 orthologue, SARM, suppresses Interferon Regulatory Transcription Factor (IRF) and Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) signalling (Peng et al., 2010; Michael et al., 2006). Knockdown of SARM results in increased production of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines (O\’Neill and Bowie, 2007). A well-regulated antiviral response protects host from viruses without causing too much inflammation (Chaplin, 2010), while excessive response can lead to immune-mediated diseases and even death (Karupiah and Chaudhri, 2007). A hyperactive immune response as a consequence of lower expression of immune response negative regulator Ect4 in Ect4 mutant flies provides a possible explanation for the earlier DCV-induced mortality in Ect4 mutant flies. Because miR-956 mutant flies have higher Ect4 levels than wild-type flies, it is conceivable that the immune response in miR-956 mutants is more regulated than in wild-type mutant flies. Therefore, we suggest this may be a possible reason for the later onset of DCV-induced mortality in miR-956 mutant flies, but this hypothesis requires further investigation. miR-956 mutant flies, which have higher Ect4, have lower viral infection, while Ect4 mutant flies, which lack Ect4, have higher viral infection. The correlation between Ect4 and viral accumulation may also be a determinant for the onset of DCV-induced mortality.

We would like to thank Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (NIH P40OD018537), particularly Annette Parks, for providing the technical guidance and provision of Drosophila stocks.

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), a new swine enteropathogenic coronavirus, belongs to the genus Deltacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae (Woo et al., 2009, 2012). It is an enveloped virus with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome of nearly 25kb, initially detected in pigs in Hong Kong, China in 2012 (Woo et al., 2012). The clinical significance of PDCoV has been highlighted since outbreaks of this virus, which causes severe diarrhea and mortality of piglets, occurred in multiple states of the United States in 2014 (Chen et al., 2015; Homwong et al., 2016; Hu et al., 2015, 2016; Jung et al., 2015; Ma et al., 2015; Marthaler et al., 2014; Thachil et al., 2015). Subsequently, reports of PDCoV in China, South Korea and Canada have caused considerable attention to be paid to the strategy employed by this emerging coronavirus to manipulate the host immune response (Dong et al., 2015; Lee et al., 2016).

During the time course of

During the time-course of the reaction the appearance of NMR signals and the disappearance of others was observed. The cross peaks dhpg have the characteristic 1H chemical shifts of backbone amides of phosphorylated serine residues (expected at higher chemical shifts, Fig. 3A) (Bienkiewicz and Lumb, 1999). The evolution of the signal intensity of the two 1H–15N backbone correlations of un-phosphorylated and phosphorylated serine residues is reported in Fig. 3B.
The chemical shifts of backbone amide resonances for most of E7 residues are unchanged upon Ser31 and Ser32 phosphorylation (Fig. 3A). Only amino acids closer to the phosphorylated serine residues in the primary sequence (in particular residues 26–29) are significantly affected by the phosphorylation reaction, as would be expected (Fig. 3A). Interestingly this potentially affects the pRb binding LXCXE motif, which spans amino dhpg residues 22–26 (Münger et al., 1989). Indeed, previous studies have suggested that addition of acidic charge to this region of E7 can modulate interaction with pRb and TBP (Massimi et al., 1996; Chemes et al., 2010; Barbosa et al., 1990; Dick and Dyson, 2002; Singh et al., 2005; Zine El Abidine et al., 2017). Our study now provides compelling structural information that can be used to explain how phosphorylation can directly affect the chemical shift of residues spanning the pRb binding site, and thereby potentially directly influence pocket protein recognition. In contrast, the fingerprint of the E7 CR3 domain (well dispersed signals in the 2D 1H–15N correlation map) is maintained throughout the phosphorylation reaction, suggesting that this domain remains stable, in terms of structure and conformation, throughout the reaction.
At the end of the reaction, the phosphorylated E7 was isolated from the medium to evaluate the stability of the phosphorylated form of the protein. Once the buffer was exchanged to eliminate the reagents, E7 was shown to be stable for more than one week. The overall maintenance of the signal intensities also suggests that E7 does not form big oligomers after the phosphorylation reaction as has been suggested in previous studies (Alonso et al., 2004). These findings open the possibility for further atomic resolution investigation of how phosphorylation of the protein influences its properties as well as its interactions with protein partners.

The sequence-specific assignment of E7 CR3 represents an important additional step in the characterization of HPV-16 E7. The structural properties of the CR3 domain are quite similar in the full-length E7 and the isolated CR3 region and the assignment obtained from the isolated domain could be transferred to the full-length protein. This information, essential for better understanding the peculiarities of this protein, could thus be used to investigate the impact of the only well described PTM in E7, the CKII-dependent phosphorylation occurring in two adjacent serine residues. In the present work we have optimized the experimental conditions to study the phosphorylation of E7 in vitro in a time-resolved manner through NMR spectroscopy. With these investigations we were able to monitor all signals from HPV-16 E7 during the phosphorylation of Ser31 and Ser32 by CKII, and we can finally conclude that the phosphorylation of both serines does not affect E7\’s overall conformation, which remains stable several days after the reaction. However our studies here also highlight the chemical shifts in backbone residues as far away from the CKII phospho-acceptor site as E26, which is an integral part of the pRb recognition motif (Münger et al., 1989). Taken together these results suggest that alterations in E7\’s capacity to interact with its target proteins as a result of CKII phosphorylation are most likely all due to local changes in charge at Ser31/Ser32 and minor changes to the local residues 26–29, and not due to major structural alterations in the rest of the E7 protein.

p2y inhibitor In the present study we investigated

In the present study, we investigated the alternative function of pcRNA when HBeAg expression was prevented by naturally occurring mutations. We also verified the uORF as a negative regulator of core protein translation using the authentic HBV DNA replication constructs. Genotypes B and C have A1846 rather than T1846 found in other HBV genotypes (Chen et al., 2005; Yin et al., 2011), thus creating a new upstream ATG p2y inhibitor for the uORF. In subgenotype A1, a downstream ATG codon is created for the uORF due to A1888 (Kimbi et al., 2012). The impacts of A1846 and A1888 on core protein expression and genome replication were also examined by site-directed mutagenesis.

Materials and methods


Chen and colleagues previously identified a conserved 19-codon ORF spanning nt.1852–1911 in the precore/core gene, but in a different reading frame than the core gene (Chen et al., 2005). That uORF has a poor context for translation initiation (T/CT/A/T/CATGT), and its translation efficiency from pgRNA was estimated at about 20% of the core gene according to luciferase reporter constructs. Ablating its ATG codon increased translation initiation from downstream ATG codons of the core gene and P gene by 40% and 70%, respectively, whereas optimizing the Kozak sequence for the uORF reduced translation from the core gene by 25 fold, yet increased translation from the P gene by 50% (Chen et al., 2005). These results are consistent with the uORF being a negative regulator of core protein translation, although its role in P gene expression was less than clear. Considering the long distance between the uORF and the P gene, its regulation of P protein translation is apparently indirect.
In the present study, we found that introduction of extra ATG codons to the uORF moderately diminished core protein expression for both αlM0 and αlM0+36 (Fig. 3A). Changing the −3/−2 positions of the uORF from TT to AC and especially GC, drastically reduced core protein expression (Fig. 4A). Therefore, our data provide direct evidence for the uORF to serve as a negative regulator of core protein expression from authentic pgRNA. Since we did not measure P protein level (which is technically challenging), we cannot establish whether the 19-codon uORF promotes P protein translation, and what the impact of the extra ATG codons found in genotypes B, C, and A1 would be on P protein expression. Among HBeAg-negative precore mutations tested, G1896A in conjunction with G1899A was more effective than mutated precore ATG at increasing core protein expression (Fig. 5A, compare αlM0, F, and αl). Although both pcRNA and pgRNA were transcribed from the SphI dimer used for the transfection experiments, the increased core protein level most likely originated from translational termination – reinitiation from the pcRNA. This interpretation was supported by the finding that adding an extra C1817T mutation, which shifted translational termination from codon 28 to codon 2, reverted core protein expression to a low level (Fig. 5A). A single nucleotide insertion at position 1821 did not increase core protein expression (Fig. 4A, mutant E and E+36). That insertion is predicted to fuse the precore ORF, which has a very strong efficiency of translation initiation, with the uORF. This result reinforces the negative effect of the uORF on core protein translation.
In general, replication impact of mutations introduced to α1M0 (not α1M0+36) correlated with their effect on core protein expression. Thus, converting the Kozak sequence of the uORF to GCC impaired genome replication to greater extent than conversion to ACC, or addition of extra ATG codons to the uORF. Similarly, α1 (which harbors G1896A mutation) had higher replication capacity than α1M0, which was nullified by addition of the C1817T mutation (mutant G) (Fig. 5B). One may argue that DNA replication was diminished rather by reduced stability of the ε signal, which is essential for pgRNA packaging. In this regard, nucleotide 1846 lies outside the ε signal, while the G1888A mutation converts a wobble U: G pair in stem II into a more stable U: A pair (see Fig. 2). Both the G1896A and G1899A mutations convert a U: G pair in stem I into a U: A pair (Fig. 2). Optimization of the Kozak sequence of the uORF through the −3/−2 positions has complex impact: while the T1849A and T1849G mutations would both disrupt a U: A pair, the T1850C mutation converts a U: G pair into a much stronger C: G pair. The fact that C+36 and especially D+36 displayed much increased replication capacity than α1M0+36 (Fig. 4B) indicates that the T1849A/T1850C and T1849G/ T1850C double mutations did not impair the ε signal function. For the α1M0+36 series, reduced core protein expression often led to higher replication capacity due to the more physiological ratio between core and P proteins (Fig. 3B and 4B, compare α1M0+36 with A+36, B+36, and D+36).

egfr inhibitor Russian companies are also looking to

Russian companies are also looking to invest in some other areas of the North Korean economy. The principle challenge facing them is that they egfr inhibitor need to be confident that these projects will be profitable, and that they will then be able to get these profits out of the egfr inhibitor DPRK. The case of Egyptian company Orascom\’s investment within the telecom sector of North Korea has often been cited as the most successful example of foreign investment in the DPRK. However, because of international sanctions, and after years of profitable operation, Orascom are now experiencing severe difficulty in exchanging its income from local currency into dollars, and with getting these funds out of North Korea. This high profile example could seriously discourage potential private Russian investors who have not yet gained enough confidence to invest in the DPRK.

Interregional economic ties: more potential exists
The most dynamic area of interregional cooperation is attracting North Korean labour for temporary work in the territory of the Russian Federation. Implementation of federal and regional programmes in the development of the Russian Far East has led to a significant increase in the number of workers from the DPRK. In 2010 about 21,000 North Korean citizens worked in Russia in such spheres as construction, agriculture, forestry, health care, fishing and light industry. In 2013, Russia increased the permits quota for foreign workers from North Korea to 35,000. This area of cooperation is highly beneficial both for Russia (disciplined, law-abiding and inexpensive workers help alleviate labour shortages in Siberia and the Far East) and North Korea, which receives significant currency earnings. As a result of increased cooperation between North Korea and the Russian Federation passenger traffic of the North Korean aviation company Air Koryo between Vladivostok and Pyongyang grew by 22% in the first half of 2014. In 2015, the amount of North Korean workers in Russia increased to 47,364 people, which is 27% more than in the previous year. As a consequence, the DPRK became the 3rd most significant foreign country, after China and Turkey, in terms of the number of work permits issued in Russia.
North Koreans have recently shown an increased interest in the implementation of agricultural projects in the Russian Far East. Since 2011, various options for cooperation with Amur region including joint projects for setting up dairy and beef farms, as well as cultivation of grain and soybeans have been discussed. In mid-2013, the Consul General of the DPRK in Nakhodka at a meeting with the Governor of Primorsky Territory said that North Korea plans to invest $1 million in processing corn and soybeans as well as to consider joint projects in cattle breeding in Primorye. North Koreans currently have experimental agricultural enterprise in the Dalnerechensk district of Primorsky Territory.
In 2014, the DPRK officials announced they were interested in renting 10,000 hectares of land in Khabarovsk region to grow vegetables, breed cattle and set up processing enterprises using Korean labour and equipment. There were reports of possible involvement of investors from the Middle East in the financing of these projects. Most of the products produced in Russia at North Korean agricultural enterprises would then be exported to the DPRK to improve the food situation.

The future of economic cooperation between Russia and North Korea: problems and prospects
The project of supplying Russian gas to South Korea through North Korea has been discussed for more than 20 years. After the construction of the “Sakhalin-Khabarovsk-Vladivostok” main gas pipeline was completed in 2011, the infrastructure for building an extension to the Korean peninsula was ready. North Korea for its part, agreed to provide land for the construction of a gas pipeline, and Russia and South Korea came close to discussing commercial gas supply contracts. However, in 2012, the parties were unable to agree on the price of gas. After that, the communication on this subject was frozen but neither side said that precambrian was buried forever.

br Conclusion Spatial distribution of positive

Spatial distribution of positive farms for D. viviparus showed significant clustering in ion channels with the distribution of positive farm for F. hepatica. This distribution may be associated with environmental variables that were statistically related to both parasites. Precipitation, altitudinal belt, life zone and biotemperature were environmental variables associated to D. viviparus, whereas soil, precipitation and elevation were for F. hepatica. The results of the analysis of the environmental variables can be used in the future as an input in the construction of risk maps. It is recommended investigate the possible relationships of the presence of parasites with other environmental characteristics not considered in this study, such as humidity, soil pH, type of vegetation, and presence of water bodies. Likewise, variables related to management, such as grazing duration, deworming program, which have been reported in other latitudes, and have shown to be related to significant risks for D. viviparus and F. hepatica, should also be studied in detail.

We are very thankful to the Vicerrectoría de Investigación, Universidad Nacional, for financial support. We also thank the German Service of Academic Exchange (DAAD) for the research scholarship given to Victor Montenegro, M.Sc. Manrique Oviedo for the sample collection, and Sandra Buschbaum for the technical assistance. The collaboration of farm owners is also gratefully acknowledged.

Canine echinococcosis (CE) caused by the adult stages of taeniid cestodes of the genus Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is zoonotic and has an epidemiologically worldwide distribution. Dogs infected with E. granulosus are the main source of human hydatidosis. However, estimating the prevalence and genotype frequencies of this parasite in definitive host populations is essential not only for measuring the progress of CE control programs, but also for assessing the distribution, host specificity, transmission dynamics, and for risk of infection for humans in a specific area (Barnes et al., 2012; Craig and Larrieu, 2006).
Molecular genetic studies have confirmed that E. granulosus is a cryptic species complex including E. granulosus sensu stricto (E. granulosus s.s., genotypes G1–G3), E. equinus (genotype G4), E. ortleppi (genotype G5), and E. canadensis (genotypes G6–G10) (Thompson and McManus, 2002; Thompson, 2008). There are limited molecular epidemiological surveys aiming to investigate genetic characterization of the E. granulosus species complex in stray dogs in Iran and other countries (Stefanic et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2006; Hüttner et al., 2008; Parsa et al., 2012; Borji et al., 2013; Boufana et al., 2015; Shariatzadeh et al., 2015). Previous molecular studies on the E. granulosus complex have been performed on larval stages of E. granulosus isolated from different livestock species including sheep, goat, cattle and camels, revealing the existence of G1 genotypes in the Khorasan Razavi province (Fadakar et al., 2015; Moghaddas et al., 2015). However, in spite of high prevalence of canine echinococcosis in the Khorasan Razavi province (Emampour et al., 2015), there is little information on the molecular epidemiology of adult Echinococcus spp. in stray dogs in this region. The present work was therefore undertaken to investigate the molecular characteristics of Echinocococcus spp. in definitive host in Northeastern Iran.

Materials and methods
The present study was conducted in the Khorasan Razavi province, which is located in Northeastern Iran and borders with Afghanistan to the east and Turkmenistan to the north. The region is >144,000km2 and is situated at 33.30–37.41 north latitude and 56.19–61.18 east longitude.
Following necropsy, ion channels epithelial scrapings and intestinal contents were passed through 60- and 80-mesh wire sieves. The contents of the sieves were washed into a glass container and examined carefully by microscopy for E. granulosus. One worm from each of the 38 parasitized dog was collected, washed three times with physiological saline solution, and stored in 70% ethanol until DNA extraction. Before extracting genomic DNA, the worms were thoroughly washed in distilled water to remove ethanol.

Bovine fasciolosis as a herd health problem is confirmed

Bovine fasciolosis as a herd health problem is confirmed if at least one of the examined animals (excluding bought in animals) sheds eggs or is serologically positive and at least one snail habitat on a pasture or in a hay field can be found. The following control strategies are recommended for these scenarios:
The choice of the flukicide generally depends on the clinical form of the disease (acute vs. chronic fasciolosis), the type of animals (young stock, beef cattle, dairy cows), the stage of lactation in dairy cows (lactating, dry), the license of a drug, and the legislations of the country. Available formulations in Germany and Switzerland are listed in Table 1. In order to minimize economic losses for the farmers, when applying a product with milk withdrawal, the recommendation is to treat dry cows. If this is for epidemiological reasons not possible, losses can be minimized by treating single cows only, ideally at the same time as some other necessary treatment such as intramammary antibiotic treatment due to mastitis has to be conducted, in order to minimize milk discard. If several cows have to be treated during winter (as is the case in scenario B), then farmers often agree to treat small groups of cows and hence discard the smallest possible amounts of milk at a time.
The control of the efficacy of these control measures was undertaken on 32 dairy farms: 15 farms followed the recommendations, 17 were not compliant (Knubben-Schweizer et al., 2010). The survey was done in the same time purchase pitavastatin on all farms. The prevalence of F. hepatica infection in the herds where the recommendations were followed decreased significantly from 30.7 to 9.3%, whereas no decrease was found in the herds without control (34.1% on the first visit, 34.1% 3–4 years later; Knubben-Schweizer et al., 2010). Furthermore, the sero-prevalence at the end of the trial differed significantly in between the study groups: 21.4% in the herds with control measures vs. 62.1% in the herds without control (P<0.001, Knubben-Schweizer et al., 2010).
Despite the fact that the risk factors for the transmission of F. hepatica are known for a long time and effective drugs against the infection are available, there is rising concern from increasing prevalence combined with increasing reports of resistance of liver fluke especially against triclabendazole, the most effective agent against immature stages of the parasite (Fairweather, 2011). Many different control strategies have been described in the past, such as chemical and biological control of the snail populations, and control of the infection in the definite host either by chemotherapy or biologically (Torgerson and Claxton, 1999). The method most widely used in practice is strategic anthelmintic control in the definite host.
At the moment, there is slow progress in the improvement of treatment or prophylaxis of fasciolosis in the definite host. Therefore, in order to optimize the efficacy of the drugs available, practitioners should concentrate on improving pasture management strategies. None of the possibilities included is perfect and each of them has significant drawbacks:
In practice, bovine fasciolosis is usually either diagnosed by the abattoir because of condemned livers or by coproscopy or bulk milk serology in the live animal. Any positive test usually leads to treatment of the whole herd, regardless of the infection status of individual animals. Treatment of the whole herd once a year – usually in winter – is a strategy often used in Germany where an oxyclozanide product with a minimal withdrawal time of 3 days for milk may be imported from other EU countries. In Germany a surveillance based on bulk milk serology is widely used. It has to be kept in mind though, that bulk milk will test positive, if 20% of the animals have antibodies (Duscher et al., 2011). In most herds, animals in first and second lactation will contribute considerably to the bulk milk. For this reason, bulk milk can test positive for F. hepatica antibodies even if only young stock are infected.

Using daily average to approximate temperature experienced by vectors

Using daily average to approximate temperature experienced by vectors and vector-borne pathogens ignores biological effects of fluctuating temperature as well as mathematical discrepancies apparent in prediction models scaled to finer resolutions. Assuming an environment of constant temperature is also unrealistic given that mosquitoes move between spatiotemporal microhabitats with distinct environmental conditions (Meyer et al., 1990). Microhabitats vary with the ecological niches of each mosquito species, and studies monitoring microhabitat conditions compared to average ambient conditions concluded that a mosquito can experience a “composite thermal environment” resulting in a different EIP than that calculated by average ambient daily temperature (Meyer et al., 1990).
Ours is the first study to examine the effects of daily temperature fluctuation on development and transmission of D. immitis, and, generally, there has been little investigation of accepted HDU model assumptions. Our dgat1 inhibitor was that hourly calculations of HDU accumulation are more accurate predictors of D. immitis EIP, and can be expressed as follows:
130HDUs are equivalent to 3120HDUhrs, and, at this fine scale, we hypothesized that fluctuations across threshold temperature would alter predictions of L3 development between hourly and daily calculations. This was predicted to result in infective stage D. immitis detection in mosquito heads/proboscises earlier in the threshold-spanning treatment as compared to a constant above-threshold temperature treatment. Infected mosquitoes were dissected to compare D. immitis development and differences in degree-day model predictions and transmission potential between treatments were analyzed.

Materials and methods

Data analysis
Number of D. immitis at each developmental stage was recorded as well as the time point of first detection of infective stage L3 larvae in mosquito heads. A Kaplan–Meier log-rank statistic was used to compare the rate of L3 detection in mosquito Malpighian tubules and heads over time points measured in HDU and HDUhrs/day. HDUhrs/day was calculated by dividing HDUhrs by 24 to convert to units directly comparable to HDUs. Rate of detection was compared between treatments of equal average daily temperature. Mosquito survival in days post treatment was also compared between infected and non-infected mosquitoes within each treatment using the Kaplan–Meier log-rank statistic.

Time point of first detection of L3 D. immitis is presented for each treatment replicate in HDUhrs/day, HDU, and days post-infection (Table 1). HDUhrs/day and HDU measurements were equal for treatments maintained above 14°C, but they diverged when calculated for 19±9°C.
Kaplan–Meier analyses of L3 detection rate in mosquito heads and Malpighian tubules between treatments of the same average daily temperature are presented in Figs. 1 and 2. HDUhrs/day and HDU were equal for all treatments of the same average daily temperature except 19±9°C and 19°C, therefore overall detection rate Kaplan–Meier analyses are shown in HDUhrs/day only (Figs. 1 and 2). To highlight model discrepancies in analyzing 19±9°C and 19°C treatments, detection in these mosquito heads and Malpighian tubules was plotted on dual axes representing HDUhrs/day and HDU measurements of the same dissection time points (Figs. 3 and 4). L3 D. immitis were detected in mosquito heads in 19±9°C treatments at earlier time points than 19°C (df=1, p<0.001) (Fig. 1). Detection did not differ significantly in comparisons of other fluctuating and constant treatments. Larval detection rates in Malpighian tubules were all significantly different between fluctuating and constant treatments of the same average daily temperature (df=1, p<0.001) (Fig. 2). L3 D. immitis in Malpighian tubules were detected later in fluctuating than in constant treatments, except where L3 were detected earlier in 19±9°C than constant 19°C treatments (Fig. 1).

br Conclusions br Conflict of interest br


Conflict of interest

The authors gratefully acknowledge: Brian Duffy, Frank Smyth, Stephen O’Connell and all the farm staff at Teagasc, Grange, for their care and management of the animals; Grange laboratory technical staff, Joe Larkin and Margaret Murray for blood analysis. The authors would also like to acknowledge both Dr. Edward O’Riordan and Dr. Mark McGee for their input into study design. This study was funded by a Teagasc Walsh Fellowship to James O\’Shaughnessy.

The most potent macrocyclic lactone (ML) for treatment and control of GINs is the milbemycin compound, moxidectin. MLs are known to be extremely lipophilic (Alvinerie et al., 1996), allowing for improved drug distribution and an extended half-life (Sutherland and Scott, 2010). When moxidectin is administered to lactating animals, a proportion of the active and its metabolites are partitioned towards the mammary gland and subsequently eliminated in milk (Carceles et al., 2001; Imperiale et al., 2004). The area under the concentration–time curve has been reported as being 5 and 10 times greater in milk than in plasma for water buffalo and dairy sheep respectively (Imperiale et al., 2004; Dupuy et al., 2008). The dose fraction of moxidectin recovered from milk in sheep and cattle being 6.5% and 5% respectively (Alvinerie et al., 1996; Imperiale et al., 2004). The greater proportional elimination of moxidectin in milk from sheep compared to cattle may be a result of a higher milk fat content (between 7 and 8%) (Imperiale et al., 2004).
The main metabolite of the parent c14ɑ demethylase monepantel is monepantel sulfone, which is known to be lipophilic with 6.5–14.4% of the dose administered to lactating ewes excreted in milk and peak concentrations recorded in milk within the first 24h after administration (European Medicines Agency, 2013).
The presence of these actives in milk suggests that suckling offspring would be exposed to the active without control over the effective dose rate. This raises the possibility of sub-therapeutic doses being ingested by suckling lambs via ewe milk. Sub-therapeutic dosage, as defined by a dose that does not kill the existing GIN burden (Coles et al., 2006), is one of a number of known risk factors for development of anthelmintic resistance (Prichard et al., 1980; Silvestre et al., 2001; Wolstenholme et al., 2004). Another risk factor is the persistency of anthelmintic activity and the duration of depleting concentrations of the active (Abbott et al., 1995; Dobson et al., 1996). This has relevance for suckling lambs which may be ingesting depleting levels of the anthelmintic actives over a prolonged period.

Materials and methods


Moxidectin and monepantel concentrations in milk and plasma were not analysed in this experiment but residues of both actives have been reported in milk (Carceles et al., 2001; Imperiale et al., 2004; Dupuy et al., 2008; European Medicines Agency, 2013) and moxidectin in the plasma of a calf suckling a cow treated with moxidectin (Alvinerie et al., 1996). The reduction in WEC of lambs suckling TX ewes suggests strongly that drench active/s were transferred to lambs via milk to constitute ingestion of a sub-therapeutic dose. An alternative explanation for the rapid decline in WEC of lambs reared by TX ewes is the ‘self-cure’ phenomenon (Stewart, 1953) arising from allergic reaction leading to rejection of established infection (Adams, 1983). However this isn’t a likely cause for differences in WEC c14ɑ demethylase between lamb groups, as both groups grazed the same pasture concurrently and there were no differences in WEC on day 0, indicating a similar level of exposure to GIN infection.
A selection of lambs suckling UTX ewes were euthanised to confirm that WEC was a good predictor of worm burden for H. contortus infections and indirectly demonstrate that the decline in lamb WEC, in response to ewe treatment, was associated with a reduction in worm burden. There was a strong and positive relationship between adult female H. contortus burden and WEC for lambs suckling UTX ewes supporting the findings of Bailey et al. (2009) for H. contortus dominant infections.

One batch of animals in

One batch of animals in the Belgian dataset showed 13.2% of affected livers while only 1 out of 20 animals tested seropositive. There are several aspects that could be responsible for such discrepancy. First, while the serology was only performed on a subset of animals, the presence of liver white spots was typically analysed for every animal of each group delivered at the slaughterhouse. The animals selected for the serology should therefore be fully representative for the whole group, especially if animals from different stables or compartments are pooled for transport to the slaughterhouse. Second, as previously shown by Vlaminck et al. (2012), seroconversion against the haemoglobin antigen takes approximately 6 weeks of continuous exposure to A. suum, while liver white spots can appear as early as 3 days post infection (Roepstorff et al., 1997). Based on this, exposure later on in the fattening period, during the last few weeks, could theoretically lead to some discrepancy between serology and liver scores. Finally, larval stages of Toxocara spp. (Helwigh et al., 1999; Sommerfelt et al., 2014; Sommerfelt et al., 2004) or bacterial infections like tuberculosis or brucellosis (Komijn et al., 1999; Matlova et al., 2005; Tirkkonen et al., 2013) could also induce liver lesions that can be mistaken for white spot lesions caused by migrating A. suum larvae. However, these types of lesions are much more uncommon than Ascaris infections.
The obtained results also support previous findings indicating that the presence of A. suum on a farm negatively impacts economically important parameters (Kipper et al., 2011; Nilsson, 1982; Stewart and Hale, 1988; Van Meensel et al., 2010) since significant correlations were detected between the average Ascaris S/P values, the percentage of affected livers and average daily weight gain in the Belgian farms. Although the same associations were not significant in the German farms, a similar trend was also visible. The 20 Belgian farms included in this prostaglandin receptor study appeared to be more diverse in their A. suum infection levels intensities with several farms showing Ascaris serology levels beneath the cut-off, unlike the German farms where only 1 farm was seronegative for Ascaris. Moreover, only 1 out of 20 German farms had less than 1% of affected livers whereas 7 out of 20 Belgian farms showed less than 1% of affected livers. This could possibly explain why the correlation between Ascaris serology and ADG was significant in the Belgian farms but not for the German farms. In addition, different significant interactions between other pathogens including M. hyo, PCV2 and PRRSV and the percentages of affected lungs at slaughter were detected in the German farms. The added effect of these associations could have possibly masked some of the influences A. suum infections exerted on pig productivity in these farms.
The migration of A. suum larval stages through the lungs has been correlated with the occurrence of fibroplastic lung lesions and is suggested to be one of the aetiological organisms of the porcine respiratory disease complex (Liljegren et al., 2003). Increased susceptibility to bacterial infections including Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and reduced bacterial clearing from the lung has previously been associated with ascariasis (Adedeji et al., 1989; Curtis et al., 1987; Smith et al., 2011; Tjornehoj et al., 1992). On the other hand, A. suum infection also reduces the efficacy of the immune response after vaccination (Steenhard et al., 2009; Urban et al., 2007). Hence, both the presence of respiratory disease and the costs of their treatment can indirectly contribute to the impact of ascariasis on pig productivity. Unfortunately this effect is underreported in the scientific literature and no studies were found reporting the relationship between A. suum infection and any of the other respiratory pathogens investigated in this study.

tegaserod The isolates were characterized by amplifying the ITS

The isolates were characterized by amplifying the ITS fragment gene. For all of them, amplicons of approximately 867bp (T. leonina) and 414bp (Toxo. cati) were successfully produced by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis based on the ITS-1 gene sequences of T. leonina, Toxo. cati and other ascarid species indicated that they formed two major clades with a robust bootstrap value in the tree constructed using the maximum likelihood. T. leonina belongs to the genus Toxascaris, and Toxo. cati belongs to the genus Toxocara (Fig. 2). The Toxo. cati homology in Siberian tigers and cats was 100%, the T. leonina homology in Siberian tigers and lynxes was 99.8% (Fig. 3).
In each age group of the Siberian tigers, the prevalence of T. leonina was higher than that of Toxo. cati. The third group had a higher prevalence than the others. At the same time, a mixed infestation was also noted in each age group, which was higher than a single infestation; the second group had the highest mixed rate (Fig. 4).
In the different age groups, the intensity of T. leonina infestation was significantly correlated with age (r=0.319, P<0.05), especially in the second and fourth groups (Fig. 5). In each age group of the Siberian tigers, the intensity of T. leonina infestation was higher than that of Toxo. cati, especially for the first group. With increasing age, the intensity of T. leonina infestation decreased. However, the intensity of Toxo. cati infestation was steady across all ages. Temperature had a marked influence on the intensity of T. leonina and Toxo. cati infestations. Both of the ascarid infestations were severe when the temperature was higher. The highest infestation occurred in the highest temperature group (>20°C, 312n/g) and vice versa (Fig. 6). Hence, a rise in the temperature led to a rapid increase in the intensity of ascarid infestation.
Globally, T. leonina and Toxo. cati are common tegaserod of domestic cats. In general, cats younger than 1 year old had a higher intensity of ascarid infestation than older ones (Capári et al., 2013). This trend was also observed in the T. leonina infestation of Siberian tigers, but Toxo. cati infestations of Siberian tigers were almost the same across the different age groups. The concurrent infestation of cats by T. leonina and Toxo. cati is a typical phenomenon, and the prevalence and intensity of Toxo. cati infestations were higher than those of T. leonina (Capári et al., 2013). Although this study found that Siberian tigers could be infested by T. leonina and Toxo. cati concurrently, similar to cats, the prevalence and intensity of Toxo. cati infestations in tigers were lower than those of T. leonina. These differences may be related to the host species. Moreover, it has long been known that Siberian tigers were at the top of the food chain but that cats were not.
Some researchers have reported that cats receiving no anthelmintic treatment were significantly more at risk for Toxo. cati infestation than cats receiving one or two treatments per year, which in turn are significantly more frequently infested than cats receiving more than three treatments per year (Beugnet et al., 2014; Capári et al., 2013). In the present study, although the Siberian tigers underwent routine deworming in the spring of each year, they were still found to be seriously infested by ascarids, which indicated the need for a suitable anthelmintic treatment.
Parasitic infections could not only impair animal health but also increase the sensitivity to infectious diseases and trigger epidemics with far greater mortality than those due to single pathogens. In early 1994, lions from the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania were victims of a violent outbreak of canine distemper disease (CDV). One-third of the population, approximately 1000 animals, died following this epizootic outbreak (Guiserix et al., 2007). The reason for this was that the lions had an unusually high infestation of Babesia, a parasitic species. This infestation was magnified by the immunosuppressive effects of coincident CDV, which led to unprecedented mortality (Munson et al., 2008). The CDV proved to be a new risk factor for the wild tiger population and it decreased the number of wild tigers from 25 to 9 between 2009 and 2010 in Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Zapovednik in Russia (Gilbert et al., 2015). Previous studies have reported CDV infection in tigers in China (Jinzhong et al., 1999). Thus, the tigers in the Northeast Tiger Zoo also faced a risk of CDV infection. In this study, Siberian tigers were found to be seriously infested by ascarids, which may also lead to an unprecedented mortality of tigers due to coincident CDV. Therefore, appropriate measures should be taken to promote disease prevention programs in captive Siberian tigers.