Other findings such as intracranial

Other findings such as intracranial calcification, hyperhidrosis, susceptibility to infections, and mental retardation have been reported (Hacham-Zadeh and Goldberg, 1982). We could not observe any of these findings in our case.
The skin manifestations of PLS are treated with emollients, with salicylic HZ-1157 manufacturer and urea added to enhance the effect. Oral retinoids including acitretin, etretinate and isotretinoin are the mainstay of treatment of both the keratoderma and the periodontitis associated with PLS. Normal dentition is observed with retinoids only when they are given before the onset of eruption of permanent teeth at 5years of age. Treatment is more beneficial if it is started during the eruption and maintained during the development, of the permanent teeth. The periodontitis in PLS is usually difficult to control. Effective treatment for the periodontitis includes extraction of HZ-1157 manufacturer the primary teeth combined with oral antibiotics and professional teeth cleaning. It is reported that etretinate and acitretin modulate the course of periodontitis and preserve the teeth. A course of antibiotics should be tried to control the active periodontitis in an effort to preserve the teeth and to prevent bacteremia and subsequently pyogenic liver abscess (Almuneef et al., 2003). Early extraction of teeth has also been advocated to prevent bone loss and allow preservation of a solid base for subsequent use in artificial dentures (Janjua and Khachemoune, 2004; Mahajan et al., 2003). Hence, we suggest that if parents notice keratotic plaques on the palms or plantar surfaces of the feet of their child, they should consult a dermatologist. Histological examination of the lesions will enable an early diagnosis of PLS so that early treatment can be instituted with retinoids, which can prevent the development of more skin lesions and modulate the course of periodontitis and, thus, preserve the teeth.