Numerous studies are still underway to try to

Numerous studies are still underway to try to understand the mechanism behind these alterations investigated as the gaming is very complex. Conflicting conclusion were showed in many EMF in vivo studies, due to small numbers of subject, distance from EMF source, time exposure or concomitant environmental risks. The in vivo study of Boscolo did find differences in cytokine levels in serum of subject exposed to ELF-EMF (Boscolo et al., 2001). In a set of experiments evaluating time courses for immediate early genes, stress response, cell proliferation and apoptotic genes, Kirschenlohr et al. showed no consistent response profiles after repeated ELF-EMF exposures (Kirschenlohr et al. 2012).

SH-SY5Y glucocorticoid receptor were derived from immature neoplastic neural crest cells that exhibit properties of stem cells. The SH-SY5Y cell line is a thrice-cloned subline of SK-N-SH cells that were originally established from a bone marrow biopsy of a neuroblastoma patient and were widely used as model of neurons since the early 1980’s (Biedler et al., 1973). These cells possess the capability of proliferating in culture for long periods without contamination, a prerequisite for the development of an in vitro cell model, posses many biochemical and functional properties of neurons, exhibits neuronal marker enzyme activity, express neurofilament proteins and also express opioid, muscarinic, and nerve growth factor receptors (Ciccarone et al., 1989). Consequently, the SH-SY5Y cell line has been widely used in experimental neurological studies, including analysis of processes related to neurodegeneration, neuroprotection and neurotoxicity. The processes of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation represent the central and final event in tissue regeneration leading to the formation of a massive bulk of cells, necessary to cover the wounded area. It is widely accepted that in vitro keratinocyte model systems, such as HaCaT cell line, at low and high density can be compared with early and late phases of the re-epithelialization process. HaCaT cells are in vitro spontaneously transformed keratinocytes from histologically normal skin. Thus keratinocytes are the most likely cells to be impacted by electromagnetic radiation.
THP-1 is single, round suspension cells that after exposure to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) may start to adhere to culture plates accompanied by phenotype change into a macrophage. Based on phenotypic and functional features with human microglial cells, human monocyte-derived macrophages were called brain macrophages (Ulvestad et al., 1994). THP-1 cells, due to their functional and morphological similarities, have been widely used as a model of human monocytes/macrophages or microglia (Tsuchiya et al., 1982; Tsuchiya et al., 1980; McDonald et al., 1998) or as a valid model to mimic proliferation, adhesion and migration of monocytes and macrophages in the vasculature.
The human K562 cell line has been isolated and characterized by Lozzio (Lozzio and Lozzio, 1975) from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in blast crisis. K562 has been used as a model of common progenitor of erythroblasts and megakaryocytes and can be differentiated into erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages thus has been used extensively as a model for the study of leukemia differentiation, molecular mechanism(s) regulating the expression of genes (Iyamu et al., 2000), as well as to determine the therapeutic potential of new differentiation-inducing compounds (Bianchi et al., 2001).

Effects of ELF-EMF exposure on MCP-1
Chemokines are low molecular weight chemotactic cytokines that have been shown to play a relevant role in inflammatory events, such as transendothelial migration and accumulation of leucocytes at the site of damage. In addition, they modulate a number of biological responses, including enzyme secretion, cellular adhesion, cytotoxicity and T-cell activation and tissue regeneration (Vianale et al. 2008).