neuraminidase inhibitors Additionally the study revealed a set

Additionally, the study revealed a set of barriers that limit pharmacists from discussing herbal medicine use with their patients. The most important of these barriers are lack of time, lack of reliable resources, lack of scientific evidence that supports the use of herbal medicine and lack of knowledge on herbal medicine. Another factor that could appear to have smaller but yet considerable influence in limiting pharmacists from discussing herbal medicine use in this study was lack of interest in herbal medicine. These findings reinforced the findings of similar studies (Bouwmeester, 2005; Knapp, 1979; Gossel, 1980), that identified time, inadequate training, limited interest in herbal therapies, skill and scarcity of reliable resources as major barriers that limit pharmacists from discussing herbal medicine use with their patients. In spite of this fact however, few pharmacists in our study may be inhibited from providing herbal information to their patients due to lack of confidence or uncertainty in their knowledge base. This finding is consistent with the results of other studies, which showed that pharmacists are sometimes reluctant to become involved in patient counseling because of lack of confidence in their ability in patient counseling or uncertainty about their knowledge neuraminidase inhibitors (Knapp, 1979; Gossel, 1980).
Moreover, many studies of public’s perceptions, revealed that many other barriers exist that hindered the practice of counseling, but not tested in our study. Such barriers include lack of patient demand. negative attitudes of healthcare professionals toward counseling, poor communication skills, physical barriers such as lack of privacy and inaccessibility of the pharmacists and lack of knowledge about the patient’s medical and medication histories (Knapp, 1979; Gossel, 1980; Dutta et al., 2003; Ortiz and Thomas, 1985). Similarly, a factor that can lead to another barrier to patient counseling, is the pharmacist–physician relationship, however, although physicians are cautious about certain pharmacists’ activities that create areas of tension between them, physicians are generally willing to cooperate with pharmacists for the benefit of the patient (Ortiz and Thomas, 1985).
Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States have begun responding to the demand for formal herbal and natural product education and training by adding more instructions on this topic and other complementary and alternative medicine therapies (Dutta et al., 2003). To obtain information on herbal medicine pharmacists in our study referred to numerous electronic resources such as Web sites and computer databases and certain periodicals. Although the survey was not designed to capture the type of Web sites and database used, nevertheless, there are several web sites and databases that are concerned with herbal and alternative medicines available either free or for subscription over the internet (Malone et al., 2001). For example, reference-style information resources as the Review of the Natural Products and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database have the advantage of the ease of use for busy practitioners. Additionally, both databases offer regular, reasonably priced updates, which are an extremely vital feature since new information on herbal medicine is appearing rapidly (Jackson and Kanmaz, 2001). In general, carnivores is valuable to evaluate the electronic resources before using them for reliability, accuracy, timeliness, reputability and depth of information (Bouwmeester, 2005). Furthermore, the survey showed that those who do not have access to the internet or other electronic databases frequently consult print resources. Reference books, package inserts, pamphlets and brochures were the print resources most frequently consulted in the survey. It is worthwhile noting that several evaluations of herbal reference books have been published and can serve as a good guide for healthcare professionals who desire print resources (Ortiz and Thomas, 1985; Shields et al., 2004; Sweet et al., 2003). One study reported that pharmacists counseled patients on herbal and natural products an average of 4.8 times per month – 3.1 times per month over the telephone and 5.3 times per month face-to-face, or approximately, an average of two times per week and few pharmacists (19%) reported receiving requests from physicians and other practitioners (Bouldin et al., 1999). While another study reported pharmacists counseled patients on herbal and natural products an average of seven times per week and significantly, more pharmacists (74%) reported receiving requests for herbal information from physicians and other practitioners (Welna et al., 2003).