In this paper an experimental-theoretical study was conducted on long concrete columns confined by means of proper plastic tube (FRP). Based on the analysis of test results, the following main conclusions can be summarized:
Anaesthesia is defined as a branch of the medical science profession which ensures that the patient’s body remains insensitive to pain and other stimuli during surgical operations. It includes muscle relaxation (paralysis), unconsciousness (hypnosis), and analgesia (pain relief). The first two are concentrated in the operating theater, whereas the third is related to postoperative conditions .
In practice, the anaesthetist has a number of clinical signs and on-line measurements which can be used selectively for the determination of the patient’s state such as blood pressure, THZ531 rate, and electroencephalography (EEG) pattern [2,3]. The aim of an anaesthesia control system is the automation of some control tasks of the anaesthetist in normal situation to avoid dangerous situations; the anaesthetist should always have a clear overview of the state of the automated processes . Two methods for controlling drug administration are commonly known, open and closed loop control. When the anaesthetist makes a decision to maintain or change a desired target drug dose, concentration or clinical effect, this is called open loop control. Closed loop controllers are computer programs designed to maintain a targeted effect by adapting the administered amounts of drug. In closed loop control, the anaesthetist enters only the desired variables to be maintained . Two drugs, atracurium and isoflurane, are commonly used for general anaesthesia. These drugs interact the anaesthesia and muscle relaxation signs that are the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and the evoked electromyogram (EMG) respectively .
There are two main problems in multivariable anaesthesia system. First, the nonlinear structure in the so-called pharmacodynamics for the relaxant drugs behaviour may be make the muscle relaxation level to saturate with any large control dose. Second, there is a great uncertainty inherited from the large inter-individual and intra-individual variability of the patient’s parameters and the large delay time of this process. Hence, these problems make the multivariable anaesthesia system is a very challenging one. The generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm and the self-organized fuzzy logic control (SOFLC) have been proposed to deal with the multivariable anaesthesia problem . A novel neural network-based control scheme has been also proposed to deal with such problem . Type-1 FLC has been also proposed to deal with anaesthesia system [4,8–10].
The adaptive fuzzy controllers are classified into direct and indirect adaptive fuzzy controller. A direct adaptive fuzzy controllers use FLS as controllers; therefore, linguistic fuzzy control rules can be directly incorporated into the controllers. On the other hand, indirect adaptive fuzzy controllers use FLS to model the plant and construct the controllers assuming that the FLS represent the true plant. Therefore, fuzzy IF-THEN rules describing the plant can be directly incorporated into indirect adaptive fuzzy controller .
The concept of type-2 fuzzy sets is an extension of the concept of the ordinary fuzzy sets (type-1 fuzzy sets). A type-2 fuzzy set is characterized by a fuzzy membership function, i.e., the membership grade for each element of this set is a fuzzy set in [0,1], unlike type-1 fuzzy set where the membership grade is a crisp number in [0,1] . Therefore, type-2 fuzzy set provides additional degrees of freedom that can make it possible to directly model and handle the uncertainties . The interval type-2 fuzzy logic control (IT2-FLC) is a special case of the type-2 fuzzy logic system . IT2-FLCs have been applied to various fields with great success [12,14–23].