Afghan conflict has typically seen the movement

Afghan conflict has typically seen the movement of migrants to neighbouring Iran and Pakistan. And, those who have resources and education seek refuge in Western countries. A fraternity also brings in many Afghans to India. But, Central Asia is also appearing as an important destination for many Afghans. They are comfortable there because of less violence and culturally it represents a Muslim society, where some degree of membership on that account is affordable. There is a fear that after the international forces leave Afghanistan, Central Asia could be the most probable destination for many Afghans, especially, the non-Pashtuns (, 2013). Most of the Afghans in Central Asia would wish to see a resettlement into lucrative destinations, such as, North America or Australia. Tajikistan has numerous refugees coming from cities of northern Afghanistan, like, Kunduz and Mazar-i-Sharif. The ethnic background becomes important and in this case it is largely the Tajiks from northern Afghanistan who have been seeking asylum in Tajikistan. Among the Afghan refugee in Pakistan only 7.3% were Tajiks in 2005 (, 2004). Afghans in Kyrgyzstan are coming as migrants, students, business people and refugees largely located in the urban areas, like Osh, Bishkek and Jalalabad. Many of them have settled and married Azerbaijani, Kyrgyz, Ukrainian or Russian woman. Several have also been granted citizenship. The Dostum foundation has been sending students to American University of Central Asia (AUCA), Bishkek. The refugees mention ideology (communism) as a major cause of seeking shelter. But, largely the secure environment and stable living conditions attract most of the Afghans (Kazemi, 2013).

Economic and how to determine molarity linkages
Afghanistan served as gateway to littoral Asia for Silk route trade passing across Central Asia. The reason holds perennially good as the US looks for a revival of those links that can form the basis for sustained economic development of Afghanistan and the region at large. The Heart of Asia Process is being a regional initiative that is aimed at reviving the spirit of Silk Route with special focus on trade, transit, energy and communication routes (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Afghanistan, 2012). The initiative extends from Turkey to China. The first meeting held in Istanbul readied the roadmap, where Afghanistan was not to be seen as roundabout but a significant diver of economic growth in the region. The economic empowerment precedes the political and strategic empowerment of the Afghan State. Heart of Asia Conference brought together nearly 40 countries and international organisations that matter to the future of stable Afghanistan (The Hindu, 2013). A significant challenge in years to come is the justifiable appropriation of water resources, namely, hydropolitics. Central Asia has been in the grip of these conflicts, with lower riparian states of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan pressuring Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to abandon their upstream hydel projects (Coskun, 2004). Already there is opposition to Tajik Rogun hydel project and Kyrgyz Upper-Naryn power plants. Germany has come to assistance with the launch of Central Asia Water Initiative (Berlin Process) for transboundary water management. The situation is not far when this might involve Afghanistan into the regional muddle. “According to research officer Omar Nesar, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russia, founder of Analytic Centre for Modern Afghanistan Studies, Moscow, Afghan officials believe rivers starting in Afghanistan unfairly flow into other countries and they should build dams to keep water in the country. But is it a right way out?” (Dudka, 2013). The physical connections between Central Asia and Afghanistan remained seasonal during the Cold War. It remained open when the two sides on friendly terms and remained closed otherwise. The post-Cold war period saw variegated options exercised by individual neighbours. For example, during the Taliban occupation it was only Turkmenistan who maintained steady contact with the Afghan state (Radio Liberty, 2011). The Friendship Bridge at Khairaton marks an important cross-over which was opened in 2002. The Airitom Customs Complex was opened in Termex in 2003. Uzbekistan is playing vital role in electricity and transportation to Afghanistan. The rail lines between Hairatan and Mazar-i-Sharif have been laid, and are operated since 2011 (Laruelle, Peyrouse, & Axyonova, 2013). Tajikistan is next important player with surplus electricity that it wishes to supply to South Asia; Afghanistan would be inevitable beneficiary. The CASA-1000 will connect Tajik power generating plant to cities of Afghanistan, like, Kunduz, Baghlan, Pul-i-Kumri and Kabul (Starr & Farhadi, 2012). Turkmenistan has also restored the Soviet era cross-border rail link between Kushka and Turghundi. It is allowing more people to people contact along the border. Besides, its supply of electricity and facilitating NATO supplies makes it a vital partner. Kazakhstan though does not share border, but its economic pull is good enough as it is the biggest trading partner with Afghanistan among the 5 Central Asian Countries.