Monthly Archives: July 2018

Oversized preliminary clusters were selected for subsequent splitting

Oversized preliminary clusters were selected for subsequent splitting by agglomerative hierarchical clustering based on a criterion of (mean number of marked minutiae per examiner) >1.5. This arbitrary threshold was selected because (1) automated splitting of clusters meeting this criterion was highly successful, and (2) for lower values (between 1 and 1.5), it tolterodine tartrate was usually not apparent even to a human how to split correctly without careful interpretation of the fingerprint image. The oversized preliminary clusters often contained multiple, clearly distinct ridge events, but otherwise were difficult to resolve by visual inspection. We used MATLAB׳s implementation of agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm; Ward׳s method was selected for computing the distance between clusters. Ward׳s method helps overcome the main flaw of DBSCAN, which is that it tends to fail when faced with highly heteroskedastic data (data in which the variance differs among subsets).
Clustering was performed separately on Analysis markup (n=44,941 minutiae), Comparison markup (n=46,205 minutiae), and combined markup (n=52,155 minutiae). Combined markup (used in sections 9 and 10.2) includes both deleted and added minutiae. 94% of the Analysis-phase clusters have a maximum radius less than 1mm; 99.2% less than 1.5mm; 99.95% less than 2mm.

Minutia reproducibility and consensus (Analysis phase)

Reproducibility of nonminutia features
Fig. 9 shows reproducibility of cores and deltas. Examiners were instructed to mark all cores and deltas on the latents, provided they could be located within approximately three ridge intervals. On those latents that had one or more cores or deltas marked by any examiners, typically only about half of the examiners marked them: no cores or deltas were unanimously marked.
Table 10 shows the prevalence of nonminutia features in the area of minutia clusters. Features other than minutiae were sometimes present in or near minutia clusters, which could indicate a disagreement as to whether a feature should be marked as a minutia, a nonminutia feature, or both. However, vulva did not explain much of the interexaminer variability: only 4.5% of clusters contained features other than minutiae.

Agreement in clarity markup (Analysis phase)
Table 11 and Fig. 10 show for every minutia (n=44,941) the distribution of clarity assigned to that location by other examiners, regardless of whether the other examiners marked a minutia at that location. When an examiner marked a minutia in an area that that examiner described as unclear, other examiners were about equally likely to describe that area as clear or unclear.
Table 12 and Fig. 11 show for every cluster center (n=10,324) the distribution of clarity assigned to that location by pairs of examiners, regardless of whether those examiners marked a minutia at that location. Selecting examiner pairs and cluster centers at random, the probability of the two examiners agreeing whether to describe that location as clear vs. unclear was 65%.
Table 13 shows for every minutia marked (n=44,941) the distribution of clarity assigned to that location by other examiners, conditioned by whether the second examiner marked at that location. When a second examiner agreed on the presence of a minutia, that examiner was much more likely to describe the location as clear, whereas if the second examiner did not mark the minutia, that examiner was likely to describe the location as unclear.

Differences in regions with marked minutiae
Some examiners mark minutiae far away from those marked by other examiners. This may be due to disagreements regarding the boundaries of the impression being considered (i.e., the region of interest), or disagreements on which areas in the region of interest are of sufficient quality to mark minutiae. Table 14 describes what proportion of minutiae were marked far from the nearest majority cluster. Fig. 12 (Analysis phase) and Fig. 13 (corresponding minutiae, Comparison phase) show the distributions of the distances from marked minutiae to the nearest majority cluster.

br Experimental design materials and methods br

Experimental design, materials and methods

G.A. is the recipient of a Senior Clinical Research Scholar of the Fonds de Recherche du Québec – Santé. Funding for this study provided by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (PJT-148718) to G.A. and S.N. and the Banque Nationale Research Chair in Cardiovascular Genetics to G.A. Additional funding was provided by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Fonds de Recherche du Québec (34574) through the E-RARE initiative CoHEART. We thank Dr. Alyson Fournier׳s lab for the TUBB3 and RBPMS antibodies.

The presented dataset contains the bacterial composition of free cyanide (CDO) and thiocyanate degrading (TDO) organisms from electroplating and synthetic SCN- containing wastewater, respectively. Table 1 shows the comparative analysis of the bacterial compositions between the CDOs and TDOs.

Experimental design, materials and methods


The data shown in this manuscript have been generated in a study of FCRL4+ and FcRL4- B cells infiltrating the synovial fluid and synovial tissue of RA patients. They include a link to the GEO dataset of RNAseq gene expression profiles of these cells. Furthermore, the Ig isotype distribution of the B cells for these populations is shown for four individual patients in Fig. 1. Table 1 gives detailed clinical characteristics from the anonymized patients. These are linked to the data shown in Table 2, detailing variable gene region sequences from sorted cells, the isotype usage and reactivity with citrullinated proteins of these individual cells. Table 3 displays the number of sequences and recombinant monoclonal SLx-2119 generated from FcRL4+ and FcRL4- B cells from individual patients.

Experimental design, materials and methods
More detailed information can be found in Ref. [1].

We are grateful for excellent technical assistance from Peter Sahlström (KI) and Holly Adams (Birmingham). This study was supported by grants from the Karolinska Institutet Foundations for Rheumatology Research, (2014reum42676) the Nanna Svartz foundation (2015-00077), the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation, the Swedish research council (VR)​ (2012-02677 and 2015-02900), the Swedish association against rheumatism, the Börje Dahlin Foundation, the King Gustaf V 80-year Foundation, the Ulla and Gustaf af Ugglas Foundation (2014uggl42674), and the VR-supported Linneaus consortium (CERIC) (2007-8703) to VM and KA. Furthermore, this work was supported by MRC DPFS grant code MR/M007669/1 to DS-T as well as a Wellcome Trust ISSF (097825/Z/11/A) grant. We received funding from European Community׳s Collaborative projectFP7-HEALTH-F2-2012-305549 “EURO TEAM”. AF was supported by an Arthritis Research UK Clinician Scientist Award18547. The Arthritis Research UK Rheumatoid Arthritis Pathogenesis Centre of Excellence – RACE, – is part-funded by Arthritis Research UK through grant number 20298.

The data of this article summarize the identity and accession numbers of sequencing data files (Table 1), the sizes of the sequence sets during the different stages of data processing (Table 2), and the outcome of validation of new inferred genes/alleles (Table 3), identified by use of IgDiscover and TIgGER. The frequencies of readily inferable [2] IGHD (Immunoglobulin heavy D-gene) genes used by the two haplotypes of five subjects are summarized (Table 4). Furthermore the data illustrate the effect of using a germline gene database that extends beyond codon 105 on gene inference (Fig. 1), and summarizes the outcome of TIgGER-based germline gene inference of six transcriptoms (Fig. 2). The data also illustrates how low sequencing quality scores are associated with some, but certainly not all, inferred germline gene alleles (Fig. 3), and summarizes IGHJ (Immunoglobulin heavy J-gene) alleles used by transcriptomes of six subjects (Fig. 4). The link between inferred IGHV (Immunoglobulin heavy V-gene) germline genes/alleles and different alleles of IGHJ6 in bone marrow (BM)- and peripheral blood (PB)-derived transcriptomes of two heterozygous subjects is shown (Fig. 5). The data summarizes linkage of different IGHD genes to two different haplotypes defined by alleles of IGHJ6 or defined by heterozygous IGHV genes (Fig. 6). The linkage of IGHV1-8, IGHV3-9, IGHV5-10-1, and IGHV3-64D germline genes to different haplotypes in subjects with two different IGHD gene-defined haplotypes (Fig. 7) is shown. Association of IGHV germline genes/alleles with particular IGHD genes in five subjects with different IGHD-defined haplotypes is shown (Fig. 8), as is the extent of association of alleles of IGHV4-59 to particular IGHD genes (Fig. 9). Finally, data describing assessment of alleles of IGHD genes detected in IgM-encoding transcriptomes of six subjects (Fig. 10), and of IGHV germline genes associated to the different alleles of IGHD genes in two subjects (Fig. 11) is shown.

br Linear and whorled nevoid hypermelanosis LWNH is

Linear and whorled nevoid hypermelanosis (LWNH) is characterized by hyperpigmented macules in swirls and streaky configuration along the lines of Blaschko without preceding inflammation. LWNH, first defined by Dr. Kalter in 1988, is considered a pigmentary disorder with genetic mosaicism, which results in clonal buy eletriptan and proliferation of buy eletriptan embryonic melanocyte precursors. By contrast, incontinentia pigmenti (IP), another segmental disorder, usually proceeds through four cutaneous stages: (1) vesicular stage; (2) verrucous stage; (3) hyperpigmented stage; and (4) hypopigmentation stage, along with pigmentary incontinence microscopically. Herein, we describe a typical case of LWNH despite moderate pigmentary incontinence. We argue that pigmentary incontinence may not be a differential histological feature between LWNH and IP.
An 8-month-old girl developed macular hyperpigmentation with linear and whorled configuration over her face, trunk, and extremities since birth (). There were no preceding vesicles, verrucous lesions, or popular eruptions. The birth history was uneventful with normal developmental milestones. Her mother recalled a localized linear and whorled hyperpigmentation over her flank area since infancy. Under the tentative diagnosis of LWNH, skin biopsies were performed in a hyperpigmented area and a hypopigmented area on the lower back. Microscopically, there was increased basal pigmentation in the hyperpigmented area. However, moderate melanin incontinence was also present in the hyperpigmented area (B1 and B2). The Melan-A (B3 and B4) and Fontana-Masson (B5 and B6, 100×) stains showed slightly enhanced basal pigmentation and significantly increased numbers of melanocytes in the hyperpigmented area, respectively. The melanin incontinence in the hyperpigmented area was further demonstrated ultrastructurally within the dermal macrophage. Based on the clinical history and pathological findings, the final diagnosis of LWNH was rendered. The patient was asked for regular checkups in our clinics in 3–6 month intervals.
The typical histopathology of LWNH showed increased pigmentation of the basal layer and prominent melanocytes. The pigment incontinence is usually, but not always, absent. There has been no estimation on the frequency of pigment incontinence in LWNH because only a few cases have been reported. Albeit the pigment incontinence was considered a pathological marker of IP by the interface changes, the presence of pigment incontinence may not totally preclude the diagnosis of LWNH. Delaporte et al reported a case of LWNH and suggested that pigment incontinence may not be taken as a specific marker to distinguish between IP and LWNH. In our case, the clinical hyperpigmentation was not preceded by inflammation, bullae, or verrucae; the mucosa, eyes, palms, or soles were not involved, and no other congenital anomalies were associated. All these evidences pointed to the diagnosis of LWNH.

Un cambio cualitativo en la mercantilizaci n de

Un cambio cualitativo en la mercantilización de los vínculos sociales está en curso, empujado además por la disolución de anteriores solidaridades: privatización de los servicios de salud, de la educación, de la jubilación, antes instituidos como derechos; imposición de la flexibilidad laboral, precarización de la contratación, alargamiento de la jornada laboral, desmantelamiento de los contratos colectivos y los derechos del trabajo; en otras palabras, la destrucción de un mundo de socialidades humanas antes conquistadas y establecidas no sólo como derechos sino como niveles civilizatorios de las relaciones entre los humanos.
Esta subsunción de la vida humana al mundo y las exigencias de la relación de capital transita hoy también por la subordinación de la naturaleza y de procesos biológicos constitutivos de la reproducción natural de la vida. En la realización del ser de tal relación se despliegan formas antes impensables de colonización de la naturaleza y de la vida humana. La subordinación de los procesos naturales Apremilast cost los procesos del capital y a su dinámica es uno de los fenómenos que define la actual mutación epocal, impuesta “por la hegemonía de la voluntad puramente cósica del mundo de las mercancías habitadas por el valor económico capitalista”.
Una voluntad puramente cósica: una voluntad inhumana encarnada en el mundo en apariencia inmaterial de las finanzas y en las cosas en tanto mercancías y no como objetos de la creación, el intercambio y el disfrute de los seres humanos y sustentada en el poder material de los dueños del dinero, las armas y las tecnologías. Son las máscaras de una nueva barbarie a las puertas de la Ciudad, tal vez aquella que entrevió la mente deslumbrante de Rosa Luxemburg.

El robo, la depredación, el pillaje y la apropiación de bienes comunes atraviesan la historia del capital desde la conquista de América y el cercamiento de las tierras comunales en la Inglaterra de los siglos xvi al xviii hasta el saqueo colonial y los modernos mecanismos tributarios del sistema financiero internacional. En todos los casos, y sostenidos siempre por la violencia estatal, los procesos de acumulación por despojo pasan por la destrucción de otras matrices civilizatorias y por la incorporación de productores antes autónomos en la red salarial del mercado capitalista.
Microelectrónica, informática, ingeniería genética y nanotecnología permiten que la subsunción de naturaleza, conocimientos y trabajo humano en los circuitos de valorización rompa hoy con límites antes insuperables: biodiversidad, creación intelectual, saberes locales, códigos genéticos, espacio radioeléctrico, espacio aéreo, energía eólica, sangre y órganos humanos, la biósfera entera y aún recursos que son condición elemental de la reproducción de la vida como el agua y las semillas.

El trabajador mundial en formación va adquiriendo y refinando así, en dura lucha por su afirmación y su existencia, una nueva sutileza en la creación de renovadas e inéditas formas de costumbres en común, conocimientos compartidos, organización, solidaridad, resistencia y rebelión. La rebelión de las mujeres contra la dominación masculina, con rasgos diferentes según sociedades y culturas pero perfil similar en cuanto estado de protesta y de insumisión contra el estado de cosas dominante, es parte componente de este proceso y en casos o momentos específicos suele ser el rasgo dominante.

Este proceso humano, nuevo y sin fronteras, de experiencia, cultura y organización lleva y pide sus tiempos. Pero es también necesario, inescapable y recurrente, tanto como la reproducción del trabajo viviente en los innumerables mundos y tiempos de nuestras vidas. Lo describió Miguel Hernández en los años treinta del pasado siglo, lo cantaron Paco Ibáñez y Joan Manuel Serrat:


The year marks the birth of

The year 1889 marks the birth of one of the most significant landmarks of all Expo history. La Dame de Fer – as it was named – was conceived as a gigantic folly (300m high) at the center of the park outside of the several national pavilions of the main exposition building. Originally seen as something monstrous and unsightly by architects, painters and beaux-arts experts, the Tour Eiffel was a shocking ARRY-142886 in its early days. The Eiffel tower was a puddled-iron structure on which somebody forgot to place walls, roofs and even a big dome. If the Tour Eiffel started its existence being judged as simply inappropriate by the majority of Parisians, it is superfluous to note how much the consideration of it has changed over time. With its 300-m height the tallest piece of construction in the world at the time it became the symbol of the Universal Exhibition and a spectacular manifestation of French superiority in calculations concerning iron structures, tensile strengths, industrial production and technological development.
If Mies demonstrated the potential of a full-on use of industrial processes in architecture, the 1933 Chicago Expo brought the people directly to the future. At least, to the future they could imagine at the time. Among several interesting pieces of architecture (Albert Kahn\’s huge General Motors building, the House of Tomorrow by Keck and Keck, and The Italian Pavilion by AdalbertoLibera) the Skyride emerged. Two gigantic towers (spanning 564m and each 191m tall) brought streamlined “rocket cars” (carrying 36 passengers each) back and forth 66m over the lagoon. Visitors could experience a previously unseen view of the exposition site and of the entire city. The exposition\’s name was indicative: A Century of Progress.
“The World of Tomorrow,” the 1939-40 New York world exposition, was significant, starting with the novelties it presented: air conditioning, nylon stockings, color film and television. Around a conservatively modern main theme provided by the fair\’s design board (the body responsible for design regulations) in which big blank surfaces were considered something normal on the one hand, and a certain futuristic taste typical of the United States of the 30s, some interventions emerged. Besides Lucio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer and Paul Lester Weiner\’s Brazilian pavilion, General Motors\’sFuturama pavilion by Albert Kahn (the most popular exhibit in the fair), and the Swedish pavilion by Sven Markelius, one project is renowned worldwide: the Finnish pavilion by Alvar Aalto.
One general remark concerning all the Expos should be made: the role played by architects in the 1851 expo and during the nineteenth century in general was merely marginal. They were put to use merely as decorators while the main protagonists were the engineers. This division of duties is quite clear in the case of the Crystal Palace or the Galeries de Machines. For instance the architects of the Tour Eiffel were Joseph Bouvard, Jean-Camille Formigé, and Charles Louis Ferdinand Dutert, but the tower is still referred to by the name of its chief engineer, Gustav Eiffel. During the twentieth century the architect progressively took a more significant place in the exhibitions and this rise has something to do, undoubtedly, with the evolution of the global society over the years.

Shanghai 2010: Better city, better life
The framing of Expos, and of such mega-events as World Fairs and major sporting or cultural events, as urban strategies for constructing and improving the image of a local city has been extensively studied in academic circles (Getz, 1991; Roche, 2000). Jing and Rong (2010) analyzed the strategic relationship between a major event and city branding, describing the process of creation of a new city brand through the recognition among people (both local and foreign) of a new identity superimposed onto a previous one. Those authors consider the new appearance of the city to be a market product, advertised widely through the construction of rich, keen imagery designed to confer upon the city a feeling of internationality and exclusivity. According to the authors, Shanghai\’s branding goal was to position the city amongst the “international metropolises”, such as London, Paris and New York. Recent studies have demonstrated how cities have successfully used mega-events as marketing tools by building a new city image before a global audience (Law, 1993; Robertson and Guerrier, 1998; Waitt, 2003). In particular, Ying Deng (2013) conceptualizes the Expo as a mega-event flagship (MEF). Deng explains that the MEF is a strategic tool policymakers use to foster and establish city branding, as well as “an event-based mechanism to accelerate the process of urban renewal” (Deng, 2013, 108). However, the author distinguishes two types of strategic goals for the Shanghai Expo – immediate and short-term – with the former provided by architecture and what he characterizes as “a spectacular shell”, and the latter long-run goal achieved through enhanced urban renewal, marked by greater integration into the whole of Shanghai\’s territory and society (Deng and Poon, 2011, 2012). In his analysis of the Chinese Pavilion, Deng provides a clear example of this mechanism, describing how the project succeeded in having its quality endure beyond the Expo to play an active role in ongoing urban renewal.

The equestrian statue was then moved from the

The equestrian statue was then moved from the showcase in the Capitoline Museum to the new Hall of the Giardino Romano on December 12, 2005, ten days before the opening of the new Hall, on December 22 (Figure 14).The transfer was not made public to prevent dangerous crowds, which could have endangered the precious monument. The horse was placed on a trestle upon a truck, which brought it EPZ-6438 from the New Museum to Via del Tempio di Giove in a few minutes. Here a crane heaved the horse and placed it in the Giardino Caffarelli. The statue of the Emperor was subjected to the same procedure, although it was secured with a harness and temporarily placed in the Galleria degli Horti.
A more difficult task was yet to come: the horse was to be placed on a steel pedestal inside the Hall. However, given that the horse rested on three points holding a precarious balance, special hinges to balance its weight were devised by the Science and Technology Research Center for the Preservation of the Historical and Architectural Heritage of the Sapienza University of Rome. A slight mistake in the harnessing process or minor oscillations of the statue could have caused irreparable damage to it. Moments of great tension and emotion occurred for those who participated to the operation, but once the horse was placed, the statue of Marcus Aurelius could finally be mounted on it again (Giuliani, 2005a, 2005b).

The completion of the new Hall: 2002–2005
The new pedestal of the statue, designed by Francesco Stefanori, architect of the Municipal Superintendence to the Archaeological Heritage, consists of a long catwalk, 10m long and 3m wide, jutting from a sturdy pedestal starting from the stair-ramp around the Hall. Although this specific shape originated from the intention to avoid any imitation of Michelangelo׳s pedestal, shunning the possibility of any comparison, it was considered too emphatic and was not widely acclaimed. Indeed, it hinders a 360° view of the equestrian statue.
The insufficient funds alloted by the Municipal Superintendence for the Archaeological Heritage, which are modest relative to the financial investments for monumental works conducted in the past decade or that are underway in Rome, impoverished the quality and the care of individual details. On the one hand, the restoration works of the archaic walls are commendable, along with the advanced technology that characterizes the steel-and-glass elements and the lighting system designed by Corrado Terzi, one of the most talented lighting engineers in Rome. On the other hand, the defective travertine ramp and the poor quality of the “battuto alla Veneziana” paving cannot be overlooked.
Despite the many difficulties caused by changes in the Museum׳s programme and by the hostility of some political and administrative circles, the new Hall of the Marcus Aurelius is one of the most significant pieces of contemporary architecture in Rome and deserves a specific place in Michelangelo׳s Capitolium (Figures 15–20).The conservation of the foundation system of the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter, on which Carlo Aymonino devoted a great amount of work before passing away, leaving many ideas but no viable solution for the city of Rome, is bound to be the next step. The difficulties faced by Aymonino—a true challenge for anyone—is due to the presence of the Giardino Caffarelli and to the remains of the Palazzo, although deprived of its precious decorations. Indeed, Origin is bound to be a “tectonic” endeavour that will deeply transform the morphology of the place, unless it is confined to the foundations brought to light within the perimeter of the Palazzo. A virtual reconstruction of the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter will be impossible because of the lack of relics.
In one of his last beautiful drawings, Aymonino evoked the presence of the Temple above the new Hall and over Michelangelo׳s Capitolium in a meta-historical vision, seemingly reaffirming that the memory of urban events depicting the history of a given site continues to influence its identity and its urban value, although tarnished by time (Strappa and Pullara, 2005; Bucci, 2005; Maestosi, 2005; Novelli, 2005).

br Acknowledgments br Introduction Mitral valve repair is the best


Mitral valve repair is the best option for treatment of degenerative mitral regurgitation. This issue has been the subject of countless articles in the literature over the past five decades. Prior reports have documented several advantages of mitral valve repair compared with replacement, including: lower operative mortality; better preservation of left ventricular function; lower incidence of stroke and endocarditis; a lower rate of reoperation and complications of anticoagulation therapy; and superior long-term survival. In the United States, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database also documented the significantly lowered operative risk of mitral valve repair and the progressive adoption of this buy LY 294002 procedure from 51% to 69%. With the efforts of the pioneers, standard surgical techniques, strategies, and guidelines have now been well established. The purpose of this mini review is to widen surgeons’ acknowledgment of these important historic achievements, to summarize the modern state-of-the-art procedures, and to provide future perspectives on mitral valve repair for degenerative etiology.

Historical aspects

Modern state-of-the-art procedures

Future perspectives

Mitral valve repair for degenerative mitral regurgitation is a well-established therapeutic option and has been practiced worldwide. Unfortunately, the reported number of cases using this procedure in Taiwan remains smaller than that reported in North America and European countries. Although mitral valve repair is technically demanding, with the accumulation of sufficient experience, success should be achieved with consistency. We, the cardiac surgeons practicing in the current era, should consider every patient with degenerative mitral regurgitation, make all efforts to find reparable cases, and attempt repair in all suitable cases.

The recent development of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) was revolutionary. It has been successfully performed in various urological operations. The most obvious advantage of LESS is its cosmetic outcome when compared with the conventional laparoscopic procedure. This novel technique theoretically reduces the multiple trocar-related parietal abdominal wall wounds and the possibilities of multiple trocar-related complications. Unfortunately, except for cosmetics, the advantages of LESS over conventional laparoscopy have not been confirmed up to date. Thus, before the wide acceptance of LESS for its clinical advantages, the extra expenses on commercial LESS devices should be cautiously managed in order not to bankrupt our health care system. Besides, these commercial LESS devices have not been available in many parts of the world, including Taiwan, until recently. We report the results of a study exploring the feasibility and safety of conventional laparoscopic instruments in common urological LESS procedures and minimizing the possible expenses in LESS.

Patients and methods
Between December 2008 and July 2010, we reviewed prospectively collected data from 100 patients who underwent LESS operations by a single surgeon at Tzu Chi General Hospital. Before proceeding to human LESS procedures, the surgeon practiced the following procedures in live animal laboratories, to confirm the safety and feasibility. After approval by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Institute, LESS procedures were performed including adrenalectomy (n=15), radical nephrectomy (n=3), radical nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff resection (n=5), varicocelectomy (n=12), nephropexy (n=4), lumbar sympathectomy (n=4), and adult hernia mesh repair (n=57). The choice of LESS or a conventional procedure in each case was made according to the patient’s preference. The LESS procedures comprised 63% of the total number of laparoscopic procedures performed by the single surgeon in the same duration for similar indications (Fig. 1). The detailed surgical indications and procedures are listed in Table 1. The peri- and post-operative parameters were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed.

In patients with BND and low detrusor

In patients with BND and low detrusor voiding pressure, detrusor contractility could be inhibited by a poorly relaxed EQKLISEEDL Supplier neck, due to sympathetic hyperactivity. We observed increased detrusor pressure after TUI-BN in high-level spinal cord injury patients with low voiding pressure at baseline. Increased sympathetic tone was speculated as a possible cause to inhibit the detrusor contractility in these neuropathic patients. TUI-BN might disrupt the afferent limb of sympathetic innervation, reduce sympathetic hyperactivity of the bladder neck, and decrease the inhibitory effect on the detrusor nucleus, and finally, detrusor contractility probably recovered after TUI-BN surgery.
TUI-BN is a safe procedure for treating BND, although some minor complications have been reported. In 2006, Navalon et al reported that retrograde ejaculation after TUI-BN was a concern, especially when operating on young men. Yang et al reported that preserving a portion of the supramontanal prostatic tissue during TUI-BN preserved the function of antegrade ejaculation. Urinary incontinence is found in 8.3% of women after TUI-BN, and inadvertent injury to the urethral sphincter is likely to be responsible for this complication. In this study, we performed TUI-BN only targeting the bladder neck, without extension of the incision to the urethral sphincter, and probably on this account, no such adverse event was reported among our patients.
An accurate diagnosis of BND is important because medical treatment failure can be successfully treated by TUI-BN. Turner-Warwick advocated the use of urodynamic studies and voiding cystourethrography to diagnose BND in men aged ≤50 years with long histories of LUTS. Patients with BND may present with low urinary flow rate and non-specific findings on cystoscopy, such as small prostates, tight bladder necks, and trabeculated bladder walls. VUDS provides data for a more accurate diagnosis of BND. Bladder neck incision without prior urodynamic evaluation is useless in managing neurogenic bladder dysfunction.
Male LUTS can result from a complex interplay of pathophysiologic features which include bladder dysfunction and bladder outlet dysfunction such as benign prostatic obstruction, BND, or poor relaxation of the urethral sphincter. VUDS is routinely performed in our department for differential diagnosis of male LUTS refractory to initial medical therapy. Although VUDS is an accurate diagnostic tool to find patients with BND by high voiding detrusor pressure and narrow bladder necks, it is difficult to diagnose patients with BND combined with detrusor underactivity. In this study, low voiding pressure and large PVR persisted after TUI-BN in six patients. In these patients with detrusor underactivity, the detrusor function could take a longer time to recover, or the main cause for their voiding dysfunction was detrusor failure. However, some of these patients voided more efficiently with the aid of abdominal straining because TUI-BN decreased the resistance of the bladder neck.


Neck lymph node metastasis is the most significant prognostic and survival factor in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Patients with pathologically negative cervical lymph nodes are believed to have a relatively good prognosis. In contrast, the outcome of patients with lymph node metastasis occurring after excision or radiotherapy of the primary tumor is poor. Factors that predict contralateral lymph node metastasis in OSCC patients remain controversial. Predicting contralateral neck metastasis may improve the prognosis of these patients. This study was aimed to examine possible predictive clinicopathologic factors for contralateral neck metastasis in surgically-treated primary OSCC.

Setting and ethics

Patients and methods

Statistical analysis
Multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis combined with stepwise selection techniques was used to examine the predictive clinicopathologic factors for contralateral neck metastasis. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Age, sex, tumor site, primary tumor laterality, TNM status, clinical N status, pathologic T status, ipsilateral pathologic N status, tumor stage, status of residual disease, histopathologic differentiation, adjuvant therapy, local relapse, extra-capsular spread by lymph node metastasis, perineural/lympho-vascular invasion, and type of adjuvant therapy were evaluated for association with contralateral neck metastasis. Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method with log rank analysis.

br Conclusion br Acknowledgments This project was


This project was supported by the KMUH98-8R22 grant.

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common MG 262 manufacturer neuropathy of the upper extremity, and it accounts for 90% of all entrapment neuropathies. The typical symptoms of CTS include paresthesia, tingling sensation and/or pain on the palmar surface of the radial digits, and even motor weakness and signs of thenar muscle atrophy in an advanced disease. From a recent review by the Bureau of Health Promotion Department of Health, Taiwan, R.O.C., the incidence and prevalence of hemodialysis patients increased annually in Taiwan. Chronic renal failure has been recognized as one of the risk factors of CTS, and the risk increases annually in terms of duration of hemodialysis. Pathogenesis of the amyloid fibrils in the carpal tunnel was documented in 1986. Investigations found that one-third of chronic hemodialysis patients suffered CTS after <4 years of dialysis, a percentage that increased remarkably after 5 years, and reached nearly 100% after 20 years. In general, most surgeons prefer an open carpal tunnel release (OCTR) for long-term hemodialysis patients. The disease complexity and its progressive process were the major concerns by the surgeons when choosing the surgical technique. Nonetheless, OCTR may induce several morbidities, such as postoperative edema, bleeding, hypertrophic scar formation, infections, nerve injuries, and subsequently causes long periods of restriction of postoperative daily activities. The first endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR) was described by Okutsu et al in 1989, and endoscopic decompression has been applied to idiopathic or any other secondary carpal tunnel syndrome ever since as a main competitor of the traditional OCTR procedure. Studies comparing OCTR and ECTR have generally concluded that, with its advantages of reduced scar pain, preservation of grip and pinch strength, and early MG 262 manufacturer return to work, ECTR is the beneficial application for CTS patients. The effectiveness of both procedures in idiopathic CTS patients appears to be equivalent and thus the ECTR has become a popular alternative carpal tunnel release method. However, there are not many reports discussing the efficacy of ECTR in terms of treating CTS patients with long-term hemodialysis.

Materials and methods

The baseline conditions of the two patient groups are compared in Table 1. Basically, two comparable patient groups existed, except for the greater age of the hemodialysis group. No surgical complications, including nerve damage, hematoma, and wound infection, were noted in both groups. Symptoms of two patients in the hemodialysis group failed to respond to ECTR during the follow-up examinations. Extensive OCTR and neurolysis of the median nerve from the distal forearm to the palm was performed. Both patients reported partial relief of their symptoms thereafter.

CTS is frequently associated with various systemic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, chronic renal failure with long-term hemodialysis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, acromegaly, and gout. The etiology of CTS correlated with long-term hemodialysis would be attributed to ischemic neuropathy by steal phenomenon and chronic tenosynovitis by extensive β2 microglobulin amyloid deposition. The underlying factors, including local effect of arteriovenous fistula with edema and uremic polyneuropathy, are believed to increase the risk and contribute to more advanced symptoms of hemodialysis-related CTS. Considering the complex disease mechanism and progressively underlying polyneuropathy, nonvascular plants has been recognized that CTS caused by long-term hemodialysis is a more advanced and uncurable disease with active progression. The relatively limited postoperative improvement after carpal tunnel release and the high recurrence rate of CTS would be expected in these patients.

Besides the application of this method to SFEBs for neuronal

Besides the application of this method to SFEBs for neuronal research, we have also demonstrated that that this method can be used for EB differentiation of stem pyrilamine maleate into spontaneous forming tissue types that allow characterization of three germ layers in vitro. Furthermore, when EBs were directly differentiated into non-neuronal cell types, such as endodermal cells, this method allowed for both characterization of cell types within EBs as well as functional testing of cellular response to external stimuli, including drugs such as tolbutamide. This combination of imaging and functional study highlights the advantage of our technique.
In addition to these benefits, growing SFEBs on MIs has similar advantages to organotypic slice culture preparations. Brain slice cultures allow maximal flexibility when performing both electrophysiological and imaging experiments (Thompson et al., 2006). The protocol outlined here is particularly useful in live-cell studies that involve the tracking of iPS cell dynamics over periods of time within a 3-D system. SFEBs prepared using our approach allow high spatial resolution to be achieved in a live-cell setting using standard epifluorescence microscopy, as opposed to requiring two-photon laser scanning microscopy for thicker preparations.

We thank Dr. Kevin Eggan, Dr. Lee Rubin, Dr. Steve Chang and Dr. Scott Lipnick for comments and suggestions. We also thank Chris Woodard and Seong Im Hong for help with cell quantification. This work is generously supported by grants from the Charles Evans Foundation, Alzheimer\’s Drug Discovery Foundation, and NY Community Trust.

Cartilage is a connective tissue formed by only one cell type, the chondrocyte, trapped in the extracellular matrix composed mainly of collagen fibers, aggrecan (a large aggregating proteoglycan) and water. In fact, many efforts are currently being made to create cartilage in laboratories by combining novel biomaterials, growth factors and cells (Moreira-Teixeira et al., 2011).
Clinical treatment for articular cartilage injury includes autologous cell injections of primary chondrocytes expanded in vitro. However, the dedifferentiation of the autologous chondrocytes in culture and the small number of cells that can be obtained limit their clinical applications only to small injuries (Schuurman et al., 2012). Alternative cell sources for cartilage tissue engineering are mainly embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone-marrow (MSCs) and adipose tissue (ASCs) have shown significant chondrogenic potential (Diekman et al., 2010; Estes et al., 2010; Pittenger et al., 1999). Importantly, ASCs can be easily harvested, expanded in vitro and are relatively abundant in comparison with MSC. Therefore, ASCs could be an ideal cell type for generating a large number of functional chondrocytes.
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily is comprised of almost forty ligands responsible for numerous cellular processes including early embryonic development, tissue patterning and homeostasis, bone formation, wound healing and fibrosis (Attisano et al., 1993; Hogan, 1996a, 1996b). These proteins signal through the simultaneous interaction with one of the 7 type I and one of the 5 type II TGF-β receptor (TGFR-β) kinases. The signaling requires the hetero-dimerization and subsequent activation of both types I and II receptors through the binding of their TGF-β ligands (Derynck and Feng, 1997). Interestingly, different TGF-β ligands, such as Activin (Jiang et al., 1993) as well as several isoforms of bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) (Denker et al., 1999; Estes et al., 2010; Kramer et al., 2000; Majumdar et al., 2001), TGF-β1 (Awad et al., 2003; Erickson et al., 2002) or TGF-β3 (Hennig et al., 2007), have been shown to promote chondrogenesis. Since Activin A exhibits high affinity for type II receptors and signals through SMAD2/3 transcription factors, while BMP2 possesses higher affinity for type I receptors and signals through SMAD1/5/8 transcription factors, we investigated whether AB2 chimeras created by mixing Activin and BMP2 sequences (Allendorph et al., 2011) would be useful in promoting chondrogenesis. In short, BMP2 and Activin A sequences have been divided into 6 structural segments and these segments have been mixed to create the AB2 library of chimeras with novel functional properties. A systematic swapping strategy of the segments termed Random Assembly of Segmental Chimera and Heteromers (RASCH) was described in detail in Allendorph et al. (2011). The chimeras are fully defined by the code (BXXXXX), where X=A (Activin A) or B (BMP2) depending on which segment is in position X.