Monthly Archives: June 2018

La intensificaci n de la apertura comercial

La intensificación de la apertura comercial y de procesos desreguladores han hecho más atractiva la economía mexicana a la ied, lo que se refleja en el crecimiento de 20% promedio en los últimos diez años. Aún más, estos capitales han generado beneficios en la economía doméstica en términos de generación de empleo. El efecto de la ied es aún mayor en el sector terciario, señal del proceso de transformación estructural de la economía al pasar de una esencialmente manufacturera a una basada en servicios.
El menor crecimiento del empleo en el sector secundario, y particularmente, del manufacturero, en comparación a los servicios, tiene su explicación en que históricamente el proceso de industrialización, tanto en el periodo de sustitución de importaciones como en el de producción para la exportación ha sido más intensivo en capital que en mano de obra (López, 1999). A pesar que las manufacturas registran un crecimiento en la producción no logran generar nuevos empleos proporcionalmente, lo que se debe a la alta intensidad de capital en comparación con otros sectores como el de servicios (se, 2004).
Así, la ied contribuye significativamente a la distribución sectorial del empleo en la economía mexicana. Es expulsor neto de trabajo desde el sector primario y beta amyloid neto en los otros dos sectores, principalmente en el terciario, donde la contribución de estos capitales en la generación de empleo es 50% mayor a la producción. Si las condiciones económicas actuales se mantienen, la ied continuará desempeñando un papel central en configuración de la distribución del trabajo dentro de los tres sectores de la economía.

Conclusiones
La ied muestra un claro aumento en México. A pesar de momentos difíciles como los sucesos del 11 de septiembre de 2011, la crisis financiera en eu y la inseguridad en el país, la economía mexicana muestra ventajas competitivas para la atracción de estos capitales.
A pesar del crecimiento de la ied en México y la significativa participación de las filiales extranjeras en las industrias manufactureras, el empleo directo generado ha sido limitado, representando solo 26% del total del personal ocupado en el periodo analizado. El empleo tiende a concentrarse en las divisiones del sector servicios (61%). Incluso la reciente expansión de las empresas extranjeras manufactureras no ha tenido un impacto sustancial en el empleo debido a la mayor intensidad del uso del capital en este sector.
La enorme descapitalización y problemas de rendimientos han convertido el sector primario en expulsor neto de la fuerza de trabajo. La elasticidad ied del empleo en las actividades primarias es negativa (-.21), mientras que el crecimiento del personal ocupado entre 2004 y 2014 también es negativo (-2.7%). Asimismo, durante el periodo se observó un crecimiento relativamente lento del empleo en el sector industrial y más acelerado en el sector servicios. De igual forma, la respuesta de largo plazo del empleo ante cambios de la inversión extranjera es mayor en el tercer sector. No obstante, en el corto plazo la ied industrial tienen un efecto positivo mayor al de la ied de servicios. De hecho, las inversiones extranjeras tienden a desestabilizar aún más el empleo en el sector terciario.
En cualquier caso, la ied es una variable fundamental para la distribución sectorial del empleo en México, tanto a corto como largo plazos. Por las características de la economía mexicana se acepta que la ied genera efectos benéficos sobre el sistema económico y, particularmente, sobre el empleo. En ese sentido, si bien la generación de empleo no es despreciable, es evidente que no es suficiente para resolver el problema del desempleo, por lo que resulta imprescindible que la política económica se oriente a complementar ese efecto con otras acciones que aumenten no solo la cantidad, sino principalmente la calidad de las nuevas inversiones.
En particular, en México se siguen las tendencias en materia de sectorialización de empleo que se registran a nivel mundial, por lo que resulta vital establecer medidas que compensen los efectos distorsionadores de corto plazo de la ied en el sector servicios.

br A tough nut to crack Wicksell s

A tough nut to crack
Wicksell\’s (1890) Norwegian article on “Empty stomachs – and full warehouses” was written in June that year in Paris. His visit to France closed the long ABT-737 of economic studies abroad he had started in 1885–1886, which included as well stays in London, Strasbourg, Vienna and Berlin. In the spring term of 1889 Wicksell gave four popular lectures on the new theory of value (mainly Jevons and Walras) and capital (mainly Böhm-Bawerk) at the Stockholm Workers’ Association. Those lectures later developed into his first book (Wicksell, 1954 [1893]), whose introductory chapter is a reproduction of the first of the 1889 lectures, about pre-marginalist value theory. By 1889 he had also drafted a manuscript on interest and prices, which contained the basic elements of his cumulative process of price level changes fully elaborated in book form nine years later (Gårdlund, 1958, pp. 121–28; Boianovsky and Trautwein, 2001, pp. 488–90). Wicksell\’s economic research agenda was already broadly outlined around 1890.
Despite Wicksell\’s familiarity with the “new theory” of value and capital, there are no traces of neoclassical concepts in his 1890 piece. Leon Walras is the only neoclassical author mentioned, but in connection with his criticism of J.S. Mill\’s proposition that “demand for commodities is not demand for labour” (Wicksell, 1890, p. 257, n. 1). The absence of neoclassical economics is explained not just by the fact that the issue tackled by Wicksell in that article – overproduction, unemployment and overpopulation – was largely foreign to its domain, but also because marginal productivity had not yet been incorporated into its theoretical framework. Wicksell (1890) discussed how low consumption (“empty stomachs”) on one side and overproduction (“full warehouses”) on the other could coexist. His main target was the Marxian underconsumptionist approach, based on the notion of the “industrial reserve army”, and its implications for wage determination and income distribution, which was particularly influential in Germany at the time. According to Wicksell\’s reading, the Marxian view of “modern industrial world” stated that
Unlike several contemporary authors (particularly in the United States; see Woirol, 1996, p. 20), Wicksell (p. 254) did not join the argument “most often directed against Marx”, namely that workers’ economic welfare had improved since the widespread introduction of machinery at the beginning of the 19th century. Compared to the rate of economic growth, any improvement in the workers’ position was perceived as very “modest”, if any at all. However, Wicksell claimed that such unfavourable turn of events took place not as a result thereof but despite technical progress. The notion that the “actual cause of the evil” consisted in discoveries, labour-saving industrial methods and other technical changes was a “paradox” ascribed by Wicksell (p. 255) to an “incomplete analysis of economic phenomena”. A full treatment of the question should bring into the picture the “most extreme ramifications” represented by compensation mechanisms that prevent the potential negative effects of the introduction of machinery on demand for labour and wages.
Marx (1938 [1867], chapter 15, Section 6) left out of his critical discussion of what he called the “theory of compensation” the essential element in McCulloch\’s (1825, part II, Section IV) argument against Ricardo\’s machinery chapter. Costs reductions caused by labour-saving technical changes must, under perfect competition, result in lower prices followed by the expansion of demand and output (see e.g. Blaug, 1985, chapter 6, Section 6). As put by Wicksell (1890, p. 255), producers “either stuff the entire profit” from cost reductions or, more likely, “they are forced to share it with consumers through the sale of their goods at cheaper prices”. The increase in real income will be used by consumers and entrepreneurs for consumption or investment, with similar results in “completely absorbing the unemployed” workers made superfluous by the introduction of machinery and increasing wages. Wicksell (p. 256) considered also the possibility of a negative income effect on effort supply, which would cause a reallocation of workers but not unemployment.

EPI-001 Our study has several limitations This pilot study

Our study has several limitations. This pilot study was unblinded without a control group. We cannot discern if the positive effect is a result of the urologist interviews or the patient\’s own expectations to stem cell therapy or if in fact the stem EPI-001 themselves by differentiation have helped regenerate the erectile function (Gimble et al., 2013; Zuk, 2010) or if a paracrine mechanism is responsible (Fandel et al., 2012; Kimbrel et al., 2014). In general, reported degrees of ED after RP vary greatly (14%–86%) depending on risk stratification and patient selection, the experience of the surgeon, type of operation and the measure and definition of ED (Weyne and Albersen, 2014). The result that 8/11 (73%) of the continent men recovered erectile function after ADRC therapy is promising, although further placebo-controlled trials are needed to differentiate possible stem cell effects from spontaneous regeneration. Regarding spontaneous regeneration, background data from review of 165 medical journals from our urology department showed that only 40/135 (29.6%) continent men and 4/30 (13.3%) incontinent men recovered their erectile function 6months and 1year after RP using conventional therapy. In a previous RCT study of much milder forms of ED from our group (Olsen et al., 2015), only 7/57 (12.3%) men in a placebo control group recovered erectile function (IIEF scores above 10) after 6months. Likewise, others have analyzed all 11 reported, randomized, controlled trials to enclose a penile rehabilitation of 20–25% following RP (Schauer et al., 2015). In the present paper, we report that a much higher number of the stem cell-treated RP-induced ED men with urinary continence had high IIEF scores after 6months. Finally, the nine months\’ IIEF score data from 423 men with ED after RP in the REACTT placebo-controlled study showed relatively low recovery of erectile function after RP; 25.5% had high IIEF scores in the “5mg tadalafil (Cialis®) 3 times a day group” versus 14.2% with high IIEF scores in the placebo group (Montorsi et al., 2014).
We did not include objective measurement for the recovery of erectile function, like measurements of penile hemodynamics or nerve impulse speed. We used EHS and IIEF scores that are generated on the basis of patient questionnaires and thus could be biased by several factors including interviewer effects and differences in the patients\’ understanding of the questions. In order to mitigate interviewer bias, we used the same interviewer throughout the study, and interviewed the patients at different time points using the same questions. A recent study shows correlation between objective measurements and EHS (Matsuda et al., 2014).
The following are the supplementary data related to this article.

Contributors

Conflicts of Interest

Interpretation

Acknowledgment
This study was funded by Odense University Hospital (11/31936), The Danish Centre for Regenerative Medicine (14/50427) and the Danish Cancer Society. We thank Lars Melholt Rasmussen, prof. MD, Odense University Hospital and Bruce Conklin, MD, PhD, The Gladstone Inst. USCF, San Francisco, USA for critical reading of the manuscript.

Introduction
Incorporation of whole genome or exome sequencing (WGS/WES), hereafter referred to as genomic sequencing, in medical practice raises the disquieting issue of incidental findings (IFs), which has important and potentially far-reaching implications (Green et al., 2012; Knoppers et al., 2013; Wolf et al., 2012; Roche and Berg, 2015; Hegde et al., 2015; Ayuso et al., 2015; Krier and Green, 2015). IF, also called secondary findings and occasionally referred to as incidentalomes, are mutations in genes unrelated to the primary condition (phenotype) of the patient (Krier and Green, 2013). As genomic sequencing is a phenotype-agnostic test, it is not surprising that detection of IFs is of major concern and requires the decision of whether and how return of these results to the individual should be practiced (Krier and Green, 2013). Another concern revolves around the additional burden this creates on the healthcare system. Individuals with medically actionable IFs will require long-term surveillance and anticipatory care, which is acceptable when it is appropriate, but may be hard to justify if there is only uncorroborated evidence for the pathogenicity of the mutation in question: e.g. even if the gene is a causal gene for the condition, the mutation could be a novel one and never reported before for the condition.

br Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which can be treated better when the applied dose of the anti-tuberculosis drug is optimal. The basic antituberculosis drug isoniazid (INH) was one of the first medical drugs for which individual differences in the metabolism were reported more than 50years ago (). Later it was shown that the polymorphic xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme -acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) was responsible for the observed metabolic differences which were associated with different serum or urine levels of the parent compound and its main metabolites. In a meta-analysis of 13 randomized studies in adults, fast acetylators had higher rates of therapy failure and acquired drug resistance than slow acetylators (). The observed metabolic differences are also associated with different adverse drug effects. Slow acetylators were reported to present more hepatotoxicity and more peripheral neurotoxicity (). A large meta-analysis of 26 studies, mostly from East Asia, showed that adult slow acetylators have a significantly higher risk (OR 3.10, 95% CI 2.47–3.88) for antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity ().
The most common adverse effect of INH therapy is liver toxicity. In adults, up to 20% of the treated patients show increased alanine aminotransaminase levels and overt liver toxicity may occur in up to 2% of the patients (). More important is the fact that serious liver damage may also occur. In some cases the liver damage can only be treated by a very sophisticated therapy like temporary use of an artificial liver or, as ultima ratio, by liver transplantation ().

In this issue of , Wang and colleagues have demonstrated an important role played by miR15 in diabetic retinopathy (). Using a large number of tools and state of the art technology they showed that in diabetes, miR-15a is reduced both in the bone marrow cells and in the retina. Inhibition of miR-15a upregulated purchase SB 203580 sphingomyelinase (ASM), a pro-inflammatory molecule and vascular endothelial growth factor A, an angiogenic molecule expression in the retinal pigment epithelial cells and endothelial cells. Furthermore, migration and retinal vascular repair function was impaired in miR-15a inhibitor-treated circulating angiogenic cells. They further expanded the study to the animal model where they used mice with miR-15a overexpression using Tie-2 promoter. Diabetes induced increased retinal permeability was prevented in these mice. However, such miR-15a overexpression, although reduced ASM and VEGF-A expressions, didn\’t abolish it completely.
MicroRNAs are increasingly being recognized as molecules with significant modulatory action, in multiple if not all biologic processes (). Hence, it is highly likely that they are also involved in disease processes and diabetic retinopathy is no exception. Here, this group with longstanding interest and expertise in diabetic retinopathy research demonstrated that miR15 is a potential drug target for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (add Wang et al. ref.). In keeping with this research, previous studies from several groups including these investigators have demonstrated alterations of multiple microRNAs in chronic diabetic complications including diabetic retinopathy. The list include miR200b, miR146a, miR195 etc. (). However, in most of these publications, investigators used a particular miRNA to target a single mRNA. In this publication, Wang et al. used miR15a to demonstrate that it can be helpful in preventing multiple important biologic processes of significance in diabetic retinopathy, such as increased permeability and angiogenesis (mediated by VEGFA) and inflammatory cytokine production (mediated by ASM) (). It is of further interest to note that bone marrow derived circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), which normally repairs endothelial injury, are unable to do such repair in diabetes (). However miR15a overexpression also corrected these derangements as demonstrated here. Interestingly, although miR15a directly targets VEGFA, its acts on the inflammatory mediators through ASM activation and ceramide production, which allowed it to regulate multiple pro-inflammatory transcripts. In addition, as noted, miR15a also regulates FGF-2. What role FGF-2 played in the context of current pathologies remains to be explored.

br Mass spectrometry data analysis The workflow followed in the

Mass spectrometry data analysis
The workflow followed in the analysis and identification of proteins using Proteome Discoverer (PD) version 1.4.1.14 is shown in Fig. 1. Each of the raw files acquired from Orbitrap Velos Pro Mass Spectrometer were searched against the complete proteome of Aspergillus flavus (strain ATCC 200026 / FGSC A1120/NRRL 3357/JCM 12722/SRRC 167) including the isoforms downloaded from apelin receptor the Uniprot database on 30th August, 2013 (13501 entries). The PD workflow was built using spectrum selector node connected to Mascot and SequestHT search nodes. A peptide tolerance of 10ppm was set for both nodes and a fragment tolerance of 0.60Da and 0.80Da was set for SequestHT and MASCOT, respectively. Two missed cleavages were allowed during the search. Cysteine carbamidomethylation was given as fixed modification while apelin receptor oxidation, N-terminal acetylation and phosphorylation (S, T, Y) as variable modifications for both the nodes. Both the search nodes are connected to the Percolator node for PSM validation and the Annotation node that is connected to retrieve the Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for each protein from ProteinCenter. The FDR was set at 0.01 and the validation was based on the q-value in the percolator node [2,3]. All the.msf files were opened together as a single multi-consensus report with protein and peptide grouping enabled to generate a non-redundant list of identified proteins. The identifications were filtered using the result filters in PD tab by applying two filters to retain only the peptides identified with high confidence – peptide confidence was set to high and the peptide rank was set to 1. Summary of the protein identifications is given in Supplementary Table 1. A scatter plot of the total number of peptides against the total number of PSMs highlighting the top abundant proteins is shown in Fig. 2. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium [4] via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD001296.

Conflict of interest

Acknowledgments
We thank M. Sujitha and M.P. Kalaiselvi for their help in mass spectrometry. We acknowledge the PRIDE team for enabling the deposition of the proteomics data to the ProteomeXchange consortium. This study was supported by grants from the Department of Biotechnology – BT/PR13879/MED/12/12/458/2010 and Department of Biotechnology – Centre of ExcellenceBT/01/CEIB/11/VI/09 (Programme Support for Research on Human Mycotic Keratitis).

Data, experimental design, materials and methods

Value of the data

Experimental design, materials and methods
Fig. 1 shows the flow chart of the methods used to acquire the data. Cell culture, nuclear extract preparation and immunoprecipitation were as described previously [1]. The immunoprecipitated proteins were run onto a SDS-polyacrylamide gel and the ‘non-specific’ 60kD band was cut with a clean blade and sent for LC–MS/MS analysis in the Southern Alberta Mass Spectrometry (SAMS) Centre. The MS/MS ions data was searched against the human proteins in the SwissProt database using the ‘MS/MS ions’ search at the Mascot server (http://www.matrixscience.com/).

Conflict of interest

Acknowledgement
This work is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Operating Grant FRN#106608 to J.X.

br Data The information and results presented in

Data
The information and results presented in this data article are derived from the in vitro experiments for investigation of the arsenic responsive genes. We also provide in silico data on gene annotation that can be potentially useful for conducting microbial bioremediation of toxic metals.

Experimental design, materials and methods
Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA strain was collected from a highly arsenic-contaminated region located in the south-west region of Bangladesh. Previously, we have reported that the strain L. sphaericus B1-CDA is highly resistant to arsenic and it accumulates arsenic inside the order DMH-1 [1]. Genomic DNA was extracted from this bacterium, using Master pure™ Gram positive DNA purification kit (Epicenter, USA). Genome sequencing of the strain was performed by the Otogenetics Corporation (GA, USA). After sequencing the genome was assembled by de novo assembly employing SOAPDenovo, version 2.04 [2].
The assembled genome sequence was annotated with Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology, RAST [3]. Functional annotation analysis was also carried out by the Blast2GO pipeline [4] using all translated protein coding sequences resulting from the GeneMark. An InterPro scan [5] was performed through the Blast2GO interface and the InterPro IDs were merged with the Blast-derived GO-annotation for obtaining the integrated annotation results. The GO annotation of all putative metal responsive genes was manually curated. The functional annotation carried out by the RAST and Blast2GO indicates that B1-CDA contains many genes which are responsive to specific metal ions like arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, nickel, potassium, manganese and zinc. Prediction by RAST and Blast2GO (Table 1) revealed that the B1-CDA genome contains additionally a total of 123 proteins involved in binding and transport of metal ions. Further, B1-CDA contains many other proteins (approximately 30) that catalyze binding and transport of the metal ions such as metalloendopeptidase, metalloexopeptidase, metallopeptidase, metallocarboxypeptidase and metallochaperone (Table 2).
In this article, we have studied the presence of arsenic resistance genes in this bacterium by using PCR amplification. The strain B1-CDA was found to harbor acr3, arsR, arsB and arsC arsenic marker genes (Fig. 1). The arsC gene codes for the enzyme arsenate reductase, which is responsible for the biotransformation of arsenate [As(V)] to arsenite [As(III)] prior to efflux. ArsB, an integral membrane protein that pumps arsenite out of the cell, is often associated with an ATPase subunit, arsA [6]. It is hypothesized that the arsB/acr3 genes are the primary determinants in arsenite resistance [6]. The results of these studies could be used to cope with arsenic toxicity by removing it from the contaminated source or converting it to a less toxic harmless compound.

Acknowledgments
This research has been funded mainly by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA, Grant number: AKT-2010-018) and partly by the Nilsson-Ehle (The Royal Physiographic Society in Lund) foundation in Sweden.

Data
The data composed of 56 pictures in 85,90µm depth along the Z-axis, shows the fiber matrix and cell nuclei stained with Dapi at cell density 152×106cells/mL after 34 days perfusion cultivation, taken by a fluorescence microscope.

Experimental design, materials and methods
The CellTank is a perfusion-integrated Single-Use-Bioreactor (SUB), see Supplementary material 1, for a sketch of the bioreactor design. A 150cm3 cassette containing polyester non-woven spun fiber matrix, used for the cell retention, is immersed in a 2L reservoir where the perfusion of the culture medium takes place. During the culture in this system, it is not possible to take cell samples from the matrix due to the fact that the cells are entrapped in the fiber matrix. This is the reason why the cell density has been measured with an on-line biomass sensor [1]. To better understand how the cells are sitting inside the fiber matrix, the bioreactor and the cassette have been disassembled at the end of a cultivation run and the matrix scaffold has been examined by fluorescence microscopy.

We have reported that retinoids both

We have reported that retinoids, both RAs and retinoic THZ1 Hydrochloride receptor (RAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) analogs, are capable of enhancing macrophage cholesterol efflux, and these events involve activation of the LXR pathway [1,2]. Specifically, retinoid mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux has been shown to be influenced by the LXR regulated genes, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and ABCA1. To obtain further insights into the LXR regulatory events, RAW 264.7 macrophages were transfected with an LXRE reporter plasmid (pLXREx3-Luc; [1,3]), and the effects of selective analogs with affinities to both RAR (TTNPB; Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO) and RXR (SR11233; Sigma-Aldrich) on luciferase/LXR activity were determined. As illustrated in Fig. 2, LXRE transfected macrophages treated with TTNPB (5µM; [1]) and SR11233 (5µM; [1]), individually, resulted in 2.6±0.4 and 3.2±0.6 fold increases in luciferase activity over untreated cells, respectively. LXR activity was unaffected in response to 0.1mM (Bu)2cAMP. Addition of (Bu)2cAMP (0.1mM) to either TTNPB or SR11233 incubation significant enhanced (p<0.001) LXR activity, when compared with controls. Co-incubation of SR11233 and (Bu)2cAMP displayed ~2 fold increase in LXR activity, over the combined response seen with TTNPB and (Bu)2cAMP. These data are connected with our previous findings that demonstrate that both RAs and RAR/RXR analogs effectively enhance macrophage cholesterol efflux through activation of the LXR pathway [1,2].
Experimental design, materials and methods

Acknowledgments

Data
These data were obtained as described in detail in [1]. SAXD diffractograms, SAXD and WAXD spacings, 31P NMR and 2H NMR are included obtained from idebenone-DPPC and idebenol/DPPC samples.

Experimental design, materials and methods
Materials. 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC); 1, 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1, 2-d62-sn- dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC-d62) were obtained from Avanti Polar Lipids (Birmingham, Alabama, USA). Idebenone was from TCI Europe N.W. (Zwijndrecht, Belgium) and all other chemicals were highly pure from Sigma Chemical Co. (Madrid, Spain).

Methods

Acknowledgments
This work was supported partially by funds from Universidad de Murcia (Grant 368).

Data
In the present work related to [1], we show differences in amounts of individual forms of respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV quantified from western blots of 2D BNE/SDS PAGE analysis, as determined in mitochondria of SURF1 and SURF1 mouse fibroblasts and tissues (heart, muscle, brain, liver) and also in mitochondria of human control and SURF1 deficient fibroblasts (Figs. 1–3).
Then we show data (Fig. 4) from analysis of fibroblast cell lines from SURF1mouse, SURF1 patient and controls, in which translation of mitochondrial DNA encoded proteins was reversibly inhibited with doxycycline (DOX). After DOX removal, the formation of newly synthetized COX in time (0–96h) was assessed by SDS PAGE and western blot analysis.

Experimental design, materials and methods

Data

Experimental design, materials and methods

RNA extraction

The cDNA library construction and sequencing
The TruSeq RNA Sample Prep Kit (Illumina) was used to isolate mRNA from about 5μg of total RNA using oligo-d(T)25 magnetic beads. The mRNA was sheared with ions into ~200nt fragments and was reverse-transcribed into cDNA. We then used the TruSeq PE Cluster Kit v3 (Illumina) to perform end repair, add an ‘A’-base to the blunt ends, and ligate the cDNA to paired-end adapters. The cDNA samples were amplified through 15 cycles of PCR. The amplification products were electrophoresed on a 2% Certified Low Range Ultra Agarose gel (Bio-Rad) and purified according to appropriate size of DNA fragments suitable for Illumina sequencing. The purified products were quantified using PicoGreen (Life Technologies) and a TBS-380 Mini-Fluorometer (Promega) and loaded on an Illumina cBot system for cluster generation by bridge PCR amplification. Sequencing was performed on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform.

br Influence of target hypersonic movement on radar measurements Since

Influence of target hypersonic movement on radar measurements
Since the LFM signal is one of the most famous radar signals, which is of large time-bandwidth product, and can significantly improve S/N ratio when the matching filter is performed. The PC (pulse compression) radar which emits LFM signal) is selected to discuss the problem of hypersonic target tracking in near space.
We assume that the PC radar emits the LFM signalwhere , , is the emitting pulse width, is the central carrier frequency, is the FM rate, B is the FM band width.
When the target moves at a radial speed of v, the received signal at time k can be expressed as followswhere , R0 is the target distance at time t0, c is the light speed, .
At this time, if the matched filtering technique is used to the received signal , the output of the matching filters can be expressed aswhere is the target Doppler shift. Then according to the maximum signal-to-noise ratio criterion, the signal has a maximum value at time . That is to say, the radar measurements are inevitably affected by the following dynamic biases
In order to evaluate the influence of target hypersonic movement on the tracking of near space target, the relative analysis is as follows.while the measurement errors of the conventional radar are around. That is to say, the high dynamic biases, which seriously affect the tracking of near space target, can not be neglected.

Tracking models of hypersonic sliding target in near space

Simulation
Computer simulation is used to study the performance of the proposed tracking algorithm, and four methods in Section 4.1 are compared with the proposed method in this paper.

Conclusions

Introduction
High energetic materials (HEMs) are rich sources of ARQ 621 stored in the form of chemical bonds [1]. They are thermodynamically unstable, but the kinetics of energy release can be controlled. They have found extensive use in explosives, rocket propellants and gas generators for automobile air bags [1,2]. Focus of research on HEMs has recently been to synthesize novel molecules with high energy density combined with insensitivity to hazardous stimuli [1,2]. Unfortunately, the research and development of new HECs has been very slow. RDX and HMX, which were developed many decades ago, are still being used as the main explosives due to their technological-economical characteristics such as their ready availability in large scale [2]. Powerful explosives such as CL-20 and octanitrocubane have much higher energetic performance than RDX and HMX [2,3]. But, their sensitivity to accidental stimuli is a matter of concern. Sensitivity of explosives is related to their chemical as well as physical characteristics [4]. The physical properties such as crystal size, shape, morphology, purity, inclusions and crystal defects can be altered to improve the performance of existing explosives [5,6]. Previous studies reported that the novel behaviour in deflagration to detonation transition was observed with submicron particles [7]. A few studies have indicated that the particle size of explosives influences the impact sensitivity and maximum energy output from a detonation [8]. Thus, the preparation of micrometer or sub-micrometer sized solid particles is of great interest in explosives.
However, the limited production strategies are only available for making organic nanoparticles in general compared to the large array of methods that are available for the preparation of inorganic nanoparticles. Some of the methods for the preparation of sub-micron sized HEMs includes rapid crystallisation from solvent by the addition of antisolvent [9,10], sol–gel method [11,12], rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) [13,14], mechanical milling [15–17] and aero-sol method [18]. An excellent review on the various methods for the preparation of nanoenergetic materials was published recently [19]. Unfortunately, many of these techniques proved to be less attractive in large scale production of organic nano-sized materials. Among various techniques for the reduction of particle size, the antisolvent precipitation process is a simple and effective technique to produce the nanosized particles by introducing the organic solution containing an active substance to the antisolvent (e.g. water) that is solvent-miscible under rapid mixing, which generates high supersaturation leading to fast nucleation rates [20–25]. Instantaneous precipitation occurs by a rapid desolvation of the hydrophobic active ingredient in the antisolvent medium [26–29]. The antisolvent may contain hydrophilic stabilizers such as polymers or surfactants. The hydrophilic stabilizer in the antisolvent gets adsorbed on the particle surface to inhibit particle growth [20–25]. We have recently prepared nano-HECs by a simple evaporation assisted solvent-antisolvent interaction (EASAI) method using acetone as solvent at 70 °C [26,27]. The same method was also used to prepare nanodrugs [28,29]. It has been shown that the particle size can be controlled by varying a number of experimental parameters such as the concentration, ratio of solvent to antisolvent, temperature of the antisolvent during injection, stirring speed etc. Infact, a lot more experimental parameters such as ultrasonication, nozzle geometry, mixing rate, nature of solvent and nature of antisolvent also are known to affect the particle properties [30]. Although there has been some studies on the effect of many of these experimental parameters, only very few reports are there in the literature about the effects of different solvents on particle size and morphology of HECs. Here we demonstrate that particle size and even morphology of nano-HECs can be tuned by changing the solvent using the SAI method.

Como hemos visto en las dos anteriores propuestas los temas

Como hemos visto en las dos anteriores propuestas, los temas de la membresía ciudadana, el cómo construir una comunidad mundial y la necesaria aparición teórica y normativa de un nuevo tipo de espacio público mundial dependen de generar una dimensionalización de los problemas acerca de la justicia y desarrollar un espacio de aparición y visibilidad para la ciudadanía del mundo. Poder cuestionar públicamente las nuevas formas de exclusión institucionales, que ahora son internacionales y que por eso afectan order ACA todos, implica un ejercicio de agencia política que hasta ahora no ha sido posible vislumbrar. Fraser construye ese nuevo espacio al iluminar el territorio de injusticias que ella ha llamado representación política o misrepresentation, y el de los marcos excluyentes o misframing desde donde se cuestionan ciertas instituciones mundiales, Estados corporativos y depredadores, que son los que toman las decisiones que afectan a grupos y personas sin visibilidad política. Se trata de habilitar el espacio común donde las demandas de exclusión en relación con la justicia aparecen como un espacio contestatario y de permitir que sea esta la forma en la que se constituya una opinión pública mundial que termine por deslegitimar a estas instituciones y sus políticas antidemocráticas. Obligar a democratizar dichas instituciones sería el objetivo político de los nuevos movimientos sociales.
En el esquema de Fraser tenemos un primer nivel: el cuestionamiento sobre la representación aparece cuando una comunidad constituye sus límites (dentro de los Estados-nación) y donde la cuestión de la representación aparece vinculada al tema de quién puede pertenecer a una comunidad ciudadana del tipo westfaliano (Estados-naciones). Aquellos que son excluidos no pueden cuestionar su exclusión pues no forman parte de una comunidad política (los inmigrantes, por ejemplo). En un segundo nivel, el metanivel político (el que en realidad habilita el espacio público mundial) está relacionado con el cuestionamiento crítico de quiénes son los que hacen las leyes y reglas (Estados depredadores y ricos, organismos no democráticos que actúan por intereses particulares e instituciones no democráticas de gobernanza mundial) y a quiénes afectan estas medidas y son excluidos de la misma capacidad de poder participar en la construcción de estas reglas y leyes. En ambos niveles políticos se trata de injusticias activadas por distintos tipos de falta de representación política que Fraser denomina mala representación (misrepresentation), y sus enfoques o marcos son excluyentes (misframing). Fraser argumenta que antes se había definido la justicia como un espacio bidimensional que comprendía las demandas de redistribución y de reconocimiento vinculadas a cork cambium los espacios económico y cultural. Ahora, sin embargo, considera que sin el concepto normativo de representación política no puede habilitarse ninguno de los reclamos redistributivos o de no reconocimiento. Es por ello que este es el espacio normativo que podría habilitar la creación de un espacio público mundial, ya que la condición sin la cual un espacio semejante puede aparecer supone que existen agentes políticos excluidos y que son capaces de expresar sus críticas de forma pública. Dichas participaciones suponen un reordenamiento vinculante y vinculado a la correlación que se establece entre la democratización de las instituciones que permiten la construcción de las leyes y los contenidos sustantivos de las demandas de los excluidos, los cuales terminan por redefinir la justicia. Fraser insiste en que podemos ejemplificar ambos niveles de las injusticias con el concepto de género: por ejemplo, en el primer nivel, las leyes electorales de un Estado-nación impactan a aquellos que no son reconocidos como miembros de una comunidad política. Las mujeres que ejemplificaron en el pasado la lucha por el voto eran excluidas de su comunidad política. Sus logros cristalizaron solo en el siglo xx (aun cuando hay muchos países que continúan todavía con este tipo de luchas políticas). La segunda dimensión de la mala representación, la que Fraser llama el marco equivocado o distorsionado (misframing), puede ejemplificarse con las miles de mujeres que se ven obligadas a trabajar en condiciones terribles, por sueldos miserables, en países cuyos Estados order ACA no tienen legislaciones claras sobre la defensa de sus derechos como trabajadoras y donde tampoco se considera trabajo las labores domésticas que las mujeres tienen que realizar, ni se toman en cuenta las nuevas condiciones sociales de inmigración en donde las mujeres asumen el trabajo doméstico de otras mujeres que ya están integradas al mercado laboral en los países ricos. Fraser argumenta que este tipo de injusticia constituye la más política de las discusiones, y solo con la globalización se ha hecho visible.

In the enrolling studies HOTAIR was investigated in three studies

In the enrolling studies, HOTAIR was investigated in three studies, MALAT1, PVT1 and Sox2ot were detected in two researches, and with the high levels of the four lncRNAs, the prognosis rate was low in GC. In 2014, Liu et al. revealed that HOTAIR may act as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA), effectively becoming a sink for miR-331-3p, then modulating the derepression of HER2. Meanwhile, they found that the positive HER2/HOTAIR correlation was significantly associated with advanced GC. MALAT1 is originally identified in lung cancer. In 2016, Xia et al. found that MALAT1 could function as an oncogene in GC, and high MALAT1 level could serve as a potential biomarker for the distant metastasis of GC. PVT1 is increased in the GC patients, and the high adrenergic antagonist of PVT1 was significantly correlated with deeper invasion depth and advanced TNM stage of cancer patients. Furthermore, researchers demonstrated that PVT1 played an oncogenic role in gastric cancer partly through epigenetic regulation of p15 and p16. Zhang et al. revealed that high levels of Sox2ot were correlated with malignant status and poor prognosis. Furthermore, silencing Sox2ot expression effectively inhibited GC cell motility and growth in vitro. Our results indicated that these four lncRNAs had a significantly prognostic value in GC.
Previous studies revealed that the expression levels of lncRNAs were related to clinicopathological parameters in GC, including lymph node metastasis, tumor differentiation, distant metastasis, invasion depth, TNM stage and some other features. However, in our meta-analysis, we found that dysregulated lncRNAs were associated with the TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. In the enrolling studies, most of these lncRNAs were detected by the single study. Therefore, the possible reason for the uncorrelation between lncRNAs and other clinicopathological characters was the insufficient investigation for each lncRNA. Further studies should be performed to verify these conclusions.

Introduction
Cancer is one of the most common diseases and a major public health problem in China and worldwide. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1million new cancer cases and 8.2million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to the developing countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% ofcancer deaths worldwide. The high morbidity and mortality of cancer are related with the increasing prevalence of risk factors such as overweight, smoking, the increased aging and growth of the population.
There are many effective methods to treat the cancer disease. Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the major methods in the treatments of cancer today. Primary tumors and large metastases often depend on surgery and radiation therapy. Some disseminated tumors such as breast, prostate and colorectal cancer are treated mainly by chemotherapy. Traditional anticancer chemotherapy agents block cell division and DNA replication. Many of these agents could also target the microtubule dynamics of the mitotic spindle. These early anticancer drugs such as platinum derivatives, nucleoside analogues, topoisomerase inhibitors, taxanes and vinca alkaloids are widely used today. They have great curative effects and slightly prolong survival among patients with childhood leukaemias and testicular carcinoma. However, they are not effective for all types of cancer.
Regarding the background and disadvantage of chemotherapy, complementary treatment modalities are being widely explored in recent years. For example, molecular therapy, anti-angiogenesis therapy, immunotherapy, apoptosis regulation, signal-transduction therapy, differentiation therapy, targeted radionuclide therapy and nucleic-acid-based therapies have attracted more attention from the public. Researches are focusing on some new approaches for cancer treatments that involve the specific targets of the cancer disease. Multiple molecular targets and signaling pathways were related to the action of targeted treatment. Targeted treatment exerted its anticancer effects through multiple mechanisms, including proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction, metastasis suppression, immune function regulation and multidrug resistance reversal.