Monthly Archives: April 2018

Es interesante notar que el consumo en

Es interesante notar que el consumo en este caso es una forma de elusión. En vez de los contactos que Guillermo desearía tener, ve porno. Antepone el control GW 610 su deseo. Cuando puede irse a dormir tarde, porque no trabaja al otro día, entonces madruga viendo porno. Trabajo – porno – masturbación. Sería un circuito de autocontrol de baja intensidad, dado que entrega placer, pero de modo vicario: lo veo, luego me masturbo. Es autoproducción solitaria del placer, en la que la masturbación solo es un ejercicio físico desestresante.
Se producen acoplamientos técnicos entre los discursos sexuales y los laborales. Liliana es diseñadora gráfica y dice que antes de tener una relación sexual “hace un boceto” en su cabeza: diseña sus coitos. Se define a sí misma como imaginativa y le gusta ver por anticipado lo que hará. Dice que maquina en su cabeza sus deseos, así como Guillermo regulaba sus impulsos mediantes frenos y válvulas.
El lenguaje del sexo y sus prácticas se entrecruza con el lenguaje de la rapidez del consumo y de los servicios. Algunos informantes hablan desexo exprés, como los servicios de mensajería que ofrecen celeridad en sus entregas o las tiendas de comida rápida. Augusto habla de evitar los trámites, nuevamente en términos organizacionales o burocráticos. Prefiere ir a los cuartos oscuros o ligar por el chat, porque así se evitan los rodeos, todos los rituales del cortejo. Entre un deseo y su cumplimiento se acorta el tiempo y se simplifican los procedimientos. Entre el deseo y su satisfacción se extiende una línea recta que evita las complicaciones y los desvíos. Paradójicamente, esa rapidez y expedición en el contacto representan un proceso de desubjetivación. Augusto dice que el sexo se despersonaliza en el anonimato y señala que finalmente solo se es un cuerpo. La historia personal que el informante menciona se significa como una ropa que uno se saca y se pone según lo desee. En la rapidez del contacto de algún modo desaparece el sujeto, hay un lapsus subjetivo; la subjetividad en la topología de Augusto sería justamente el rodeo, el trámite, el nombre y la historia. La subjetividad es una línea curva. Esta desaparece y queda el cuerpo, anónimo y expuesto.
El cuerpo, que aparece, en alguna medida, como el último reducto para que el sujeto despliegue sus fantasías, ausentándose y despojándose de sí mismo, surge como una superficie que permite momentos diferenciados de satisfacción. Un uso del saber científico permite describir el cuerpo como objeto y distinguir sus funciones. La sexualidad se incluye dentro de ellas. Nino se pregunta: “¿qué es mi cuerpo?”, y despliega su teoría personal sobre el tema. Responde mediante una descripción cuasi científica de sí mismo: vincula necesidades fisiológicas, crea una degradé de interacciones posibles. Cada cosa tiene un lugar dentro de esta corporalidad tecnificada. El sexo ocupa uno, de mayor intensidad, pero contiguo a midbrain otras necesidades y demandas corporales: comer, bañarse, ir al baño.
La penetración de los lenguajes organizacionales y del desarrollo personal permite leer la propia identidad sexual como un factor de éxito o fracaso. David, quien ocupa un alto cargo en una empresa multinacional, dice que ser gay es un hándicap ante los otros. Lo considera un defecto o una discapacidad que lo pone a él, de algún modo, fuera del convenio social. El informante tiene claro que ese convenio es heteronormativo, pero no lo cuestiona, sino que lee su diferencia como un defecto personal que debe considerar para relacionarse con los demás y actuar en el mundo. En los mercados laborales competitivos y flexibles, David tiene un factor en contra que debe compensar. Abandonando el lenguaje y los imaginarios de la enfermedad, las diferencias se transforman en cualidades o defectos personales.
El consumo, los discursos y prácticas sociales que articula forman parte, en nuestra opinión, de un régimen de significación posmoderno, en términos de Lash (2007). El posmodernismo, escribe Featherstone, “comprende cambios en las prácticas y experiencias cotidianas de distintos grupos que […] comienzan a emplear regímenes de significación de distintas formas y a crear nuevos medios de orientación y nuevas estructuras de identidad” (Featherstone 2000: 113). Lash describe el régimen de significación posmoderno como figural: privilegia lo visual, desvaloriza los formalismos y yuxtapone significantes que provienen de distintos contextos, enfatiza el hacer, y opera “a través de la inmersión del espectador (consumidor), de la investidura relativamente inmediata de su deseo en el objeto cultural (de consumo)” (Lash 2007: 220). La desregulación aparente de la vida social, la cual hemos leído como un rasgo de las sociedades de control, y la diversificación de las relaciones sociales obligan a cada sujeto a construir una narrativa para su deseo y su sexualidad. El mercado y el consumo operan como narrativas modulares: entregan las piezas para que cada sujeto las arme como quiera. Ante la pesada y obligatoria gramática de la religión, por ejemplo, estas narrativas son flexibles, diversas y acomodables en distintos contextos. Cada cual debe hacer su propio boceto, como nos dijo Liliana, o regular sus máquinas psíquicas y corporales, como lo hace Guillermo. En el campo de la sexualidad no parece haber otra regulación que la que cada quien se pone a sí mismo.

La sentencia marca un hito Luego de se alar

La sentencia marca un hito. Luego de señalar que el asunto es complejo porque está envuelto en una problemática social y jurídica profunda, pues las personas que prestan su trabajo como sexo servidoras/es se encuentran en la mayoríade los casos en una situación de vulnerabilidad extrema que cargan sphingosine cuestas desde muy tierna edad la Juez argumentó que La prostitución ejercida libremente y por personas mayores de edad plenamente concientes de ello, puede considerarse como un oficio, puesto que es el intercambio de una labor (sexual) por dinero. La Jueza discrepó de los planteamientos de la Ley de Cultura Cívica y estimó que abordar el tema de la prostitución bajo el argumento de que no puede dársele la connotación de un trabajo o bajo el argumento de que es una actividad indigna, deshonesta o socialmente inútil, es tanto como abordar el problema con una visión muy estrecha y sin tomar en cuenta todas las aristas sobre las que gira, pues es verlo desde el punto de vista de si escandaliza la moral de algunos miembros de la sociedad, pasando por alto la alta complejidad que tiene como es la situación de vulnerabilidad en la que se encuentran las y los trabajadores sexuales, que muchas veces son explotados por los proxenetas, que no tienen otra alternativa de vida para su sustento, que han sido marginados social y familiarmente, a quienes se ha violado el derecho a la salud, especialmente sexual y reproductiva, a la educación y en algunos casos se ha transgredido su dignidad humana. La mayoría de las veces han iniciado en este oficio siendo menores de edad, engañadas y explotadas, viven en una profunda soledad y con limitaciones materiales alarmantes, pues a veces ni siquiera en dónde dormir tienen y mientras más se acercan a la edad adulta e incluso a ser personas adultas mayores su situación se agrava aún más. En ocasiones son objeto de extorsiones y acto de hostigamiento e intimidación por los propios agentes policiacos y ministeriales. Por ello es que al parecer de esta Jueza de Distrito, la problemática que gira en torno a la prostitución es muchísimo más compleja que la simple calificación moral o descalificación simplista de ese oficio como un trabajo que no puede considerarse como honesto, digno o socialmente útil. De ahí la Jueza concluyó, respecto al artículo de la Ley de Cultura Cívica, que la redacción de ese numeral tiene en lugar de un incentivo virtuoso para las quejosas, uno dañino que transgrede el derecho al trabajo y a Filter hybridization la igualdad, porque las posiciona en una situación aún más vulnerable de la que se encuentran. Señaló: No puede quedar al arbitrio de un tercero, como es un vecino, el ejercicio de la prostitución.
En su argumentación sobre el derecho al trabajo, al que llama el oficio más antiguo del mundo la Jueza señaló que Es inconstitucional especialmente en relación con los derechos humanos al trabajo y a la igualdad contemplados en artículos 5y 1de la Constitución. Al subrayar la importancia de respetar la libre elección de su trabajo también concluyó que sí procede expedirles la licencia y darles la credencial solicitada.
El 5 de febrero de 2014 llegó la resolución judicial a la Oficialía de partes de la Secretaría del Trabajo del gdf. Un mes antes, el 6 de enero, Patricia Mercado, compañera feminista de larga data, había sido nombrada la titular. El funcionario encargado de dar respuesta a la orden de la Jueza, siguiendo la línea anterior, decidió inconformarse y no acatar la resolución. Sin embargo, cuando le llevó a la recién estrenada Secretaria el documento para su firma, y ella vio de lo que se trataba, lo rechazó y decidió aceptar la resolución judicial. La Jueza también conminaba al gdf y a la Asamblea Legislativa, y en ambas instancias algo similar había ocurrido: se había respondido en automático no acatar la orden judicial. Patricia Mercado explicó las razones por las cuales ella había decidido obedecer la resolución, y logró convencerles de que se retractaran. Entretanto la abogada Zamora y las quejosas, acompañadas de Brigada Callejera, se presentaron a la Secretaría del Trabajo a exigir las credenciales que corresponden a las licencias. Aunque la entrega de credenciales requiere una larga labor previa para que las autoridades de- legacionales definan los lugares públicos donde se llevará a cabo el servicio, como en este caso se trataba de obedecer una orden judicial, la entrega de las credenciales se realizó el día 10 de marzo de 2014, en las instalaciones de la Secretaría. La segunda entrega se realizaría hasta el 11 de julio, Día nacional de la trabajadora sexual, también en las instalaciones de la Secretaría del Trabajo, en presencia de la Secretaria Mercado.

ldk378 Al respecto Baudrillard se ala que esta

Al respecto, Baudrillard (1969) señala que esta totalidad es de orden moral, porque ahí quedarán materializadas las relaciones personales del grupo que cohabita en ese continente espacio-objetual. Sin embargo, Baudrillard olvida mencionar que estas relaciones son también relaciones de poder, y que la familia tradicional, con que el autor asocia este orden, no es simplemente un grupo humano unido por el parentesco, sino una forma ideológico-política mediante la cual el proyecto liberal del siglo xix logró ajustar el orden social al orden económico; un sistema que adjudicó ldk378 las mujeres el papel de cuidadoras y que logró privarlas de su participación en el espacio público.
Podemos afirmar, entonces, que la vivienda se convertirá en la representación material de la subordinación femenina, de su explotación y confinamiento, y que la estructura espacio-objetual, formal y temporal, que la vivienda burguesa estipuló como un verdadero arquetipo hegemónico, será un sistema codificado en esta opresión. En efecto, esta estructura tendrá además como objetivo desactivar por completo la capacidad de las mujeres para subvertir este orden y velar el sentido político que toda estructura espacio-objetual porta por el hecho de estar significada a través de las relaciones sociales. En resumen, se trata de inhibir lo que Arendt (1997) denominó la “acción política”, aquella que es capaz de modificar a través de un acto consciente (a través del discurso) la intersubjetividad, es decir, la esfera de lo común. Más que un acto de continuidad, la “acción” es un acto de irrupción que requiere colocar la individualidad dentro de lo público. Pero debemos tener cuidado, porque no hablamos de simple voluntad ni de un simple acto producto de la necesidad, sino del principio de pluralidad vinculada con la libertad que es propia de la condición humana. Solo a partir de este principio podemos hilar el discurso que es en sí la estructura espacio-objetual. Componer un sistema de espacios y de objetos, con la consciencia de que en realidad lo que componemos e intervenimos es el orden social, es la única forma en que podemos contrarrestar la plétora de discursos, normas y dogmas que las personas especialistas del espacio y del diseño hemos generado especialmente para quienes habitan la urbe capitalista. Por ello, el cuerpo femenino, su trabajo y el espacio que ocupan para realizarlo se han convertido en lugares constantemente colonizados para eliminar cualquier intento de sublevación.

El criterio dicotómico
Para el sujeto moderno, la fragmentación del mundo material y su paulatina disgregación no constan de pequeñas unidades que mantengan una interacción conjunta, sino que su marco de sentido ha reducido toda esta complejidad a PCR una simple división en partes surgida de la posición que este ocupa en el proceso epistémico. Al percatarse de su existencia, el individuo constata que se encuentra inserto en un mundo que no-es él, que es otra cosa y que por ende se halla fuera de toda comprobación existencial. El mundo puede ser o no, pero su conciencia no le rebatirá su propia presencia. Partida así la realidad, dividida en aquello que soy y en aquello otro que no-soy, deviene la polaridad presencia-ausencia, la cual determinará el fundamento de la epistemología occidental.
Para Maffía (2005), la característica de esta bivalencia codificada en los pares dicotómicos es que es exhaustiva y excluyente, lo que significa que, por un lado, forma una totalidad sin que quepa alternativa alguna, y por el otro, que si algo pertenece a un lado del par, automáticamente deja de pertenecer al otro. Además, las dicotomías evidentemente nacen sexualizadas, porque el sujeto epistémico, el-que-conoce y que subyace al cogito ergo sum, es sin duda un varón. En efecto, el sistema patriarcal traducirá, a partir de su propia lógica, este principio filosófico en el binomio masculino-femenino y lo convertirá en una premisa dentro del sistema social de la Ilustración.

Data from related literature has

Data from related literature has suggested that arthrocentesis may be of some benefit to manage symptoms of TMDs. Such a technique was first introduced for the management of sudden onset of closed lock [3]. Arthrocentesis is the single most important non-invasive procedure in musculoskeletal medicine. Therapeutic arthrocentesis is the basic underlying procedure for intra-articular treatment, including; needle lavage and intra-articular injection of therapeutic substances [4].
One of these therapeutic substances is the hyaluronic Wortmannin (HA), Exogenous (HA) can stimulate the synthesis of endogenous (HA)–forming synoviocytes of osteoarthritic joints, so reducing joint friction coefficient and decreasing risk of damage [5].
There is scientific and clinical evidence for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Intra-articular (IA) administered opioids; both in acute and chronic joint pain [6]. Intra-articular injection of opioids has been reported in various studies (Likar et al. [7] 1997; Gupta et al. [8] 2001; Kalso et al. [9] 2002), but according to current study, no survey has been made for the evaluation of fentanyl in TMJ intra-articular injection.
Opioid agonists have powerful anti-inflammatory properties and they exert their action in the periphery via opioids receptors [10].
Fentanyl is a synthetic potent mu opioid receptor agonist characterized by both high potency and high lipid solubility; it is approximately 80 times more potent than morphine and binds strongly to plasma proteins [11,12].

Materials and methods
All patients were subjected to:
These parameters were recorded also at the following intervals postoperatively; immediate post-operative, one week, one month and six months after the procedure.
The treated joints were divided randomly into two groups;

Results

Discussion
Ever since pain pathways are understood by the clinicians, importance has been given for utilizing the peripheral narcotic receptors for management of pain Understanding, that opioids can elicit analgesic effects by acting on peripheral opioid receptors, has led to their experimentation in controlled clinical trials [43,44].
Peripheral opioid receptors may be activated only in the presence of tissue inflammation; also, opioid binding sites have been identified in synovial tissues indicating that analgesia is locally mediated. Opioid receptors are mostly located on the terminal end of the nerves and they are activated by inflammation; in this situation afferent ends of the nerves and leukocytes are the target sites. They have a longer analgesic effect in the intra-articular region compared with systemic administration [45–47]. Fentanyl being fat soluble opioid with less histamine release was proved in many studies to be more effective in intra-articular analgesia than morphine [43,48,49]; Histamine is a powerful activator of nociceptors in the local tissues and induces substance-P release. Histamine and substance P produce vasodilatation and increased vascular permeability, which lead to the release of bradykinin. Substance P promotes additional release of histamine from mast cells and serotonin from platelets [50,51]. Fentanyl being fat soluble opioid with less histamine release was proved in many studies to be more effective in intra-articular analgesia than morphine [43,48,49].
In accordance with current study results; Saryazdi et al. [52] found that better postoperative analgesia and less pain score were achieved by fentanyl and pethidine in comparison to dexamethasone but the results were not significantly different between fentanyl group and pethidine. Further article by Mandal et al. [49] concluded that although fentanyl is a short-acting narcotic drug, its IA administration provided prolonged postoperative analgesia.
On the other hand; Uysalel et al. [53] concluded that a combination of intra-articular morphine and bupivacaine has a longer analgesic duration than a combination of fentanyl and bupivacaine for analgesia after arthroscopic surgery of the knee joint. Furthermore, on contrary to the present study; Manuar et al. [54] suggested that intra-articular ropivacaine gives better postoperative pain relief, with increased time of first analgesic request and decreased need of total postoperative analgesia compared to fentanyl and dexmedetomidine.

Further EVA focuses on short term gains

Further, EVA focuses on short term gains and immediate results that deter managers to invest their time and effort in innovative products and processes. Since costs associated with R&D in projects are immediately recognized, at least in part, by accountants, their benefits accrue to an organization few years down the line. The net effect of such investment by managers is lower EVA in the current accounting year, which could result in demotion, bypassed promotion or even layoffs. Hence, managers tend to forgo investment in R&D oriented projects that may produce greater returns. Such motivation to risk aversion emerges because EVA evaluates performance of managers in terms of immediate results that may result in poor competitive position of an organization in future. Moreover, EVA helps to identify the divisions that exhibit poor performance but do not point out to the root causes of operational inefficiencies (Pustylnick, 2011). It is asserted that operation managers are more concerned with non-financial performance measures like yield and throughput in order to enhance yields and remove bottle necks (McKinnon & Bruns, 1993). The only financial information needed by operation mangers is cost information. Financial numbers, such as EVA, are least helpful to operation mangers because they do not point towards the root causes of operational inefficiencies (Brewer et al., 1999).
Furthermore, EVA does not take into consideration size differences (Hansen & Mowen, 1997; Horngren, et al., 1997). It is amplified that EVA is calculated on the total amount of invested capital, due to capitalization differences among larger and smaller firms, EVA will also tend to differ. For a large sized firm with high capitalization, EVA will be more compared to smaller counterparts (Brewer et al., 1999; Pustylnick, 2011). Finally researches like, Biddle et al. (1997), Chen and Dodd (1997) and Mishra (2009) assert that EVA does not strongly correlate with stock returns as claimed by its proponents.

Methodology

Results and discussion

Conclusion
The study attempted to examine whether EVA or earning based performance metrics are best for explaining MVA in Indian firms. The results do not support the claim of Stern & Stewart that EVA is superior then traditional earning based performance metrics in explaining MVA. However it aa-dutp has been found that traditional earning based performance measures better explain MVA and among them OI for both manufacturing and sector have shown strong linkages with MVA. Moreover, it is found that all the performance metrics have a significant positive relationship with MVA but the important conclusion to be made here is that OI׳s explanatory power is almost thrice the explanatory power of EVA in both manufacturing and service sectors. Furthermore, all the traditional earning based performance measures have shown a higher explanatory power than EVA, implying that Indian markets can continue to evaluate the performance on the basis of traditional earning based performance measures. There can be numerous reasons as to why EVA does not perform well in India, for instance, the accounting adjustments to NOPAT suggested by Stern Stewart & Co. may not be always effective in India and might contain measurement error relative to what information Indian markets use for valuing firms. This phenomenon has also been explained by Biddle et al. (1997) who argues that in an attempt to ascertain the EVA, the adjustments made to NOPAT may remove accruals that are used by market participants for determining the future prospectus of the company. Thus, while EVA determines the true economic profitability of the firm its association with market returns is lost. Further, Kramer and Peters (2001) suggests that as market is constantly fed with news on earnings, it may not be quite responsive to EVA in short run. Moreover, prior literature gives another plausible explanation to the weak relevance of EVA in explaining MVA may be due to financial analysts “earnings myopia”. It is argued that certain adopters of EVA base their external performance on earnings because financial analysts continue to focus on the earnings as the measure of performance. Thus, it is widely acknowledged that market constantly fails to recognize the benefits of EVA reporting. With regard to Indian companies, EVA weak relevance can be because of non-mandatory disclosure of EVA statements in annual reports and also because of non-availability of detailed financial data. Thus, earning metrics are the only performance measures that financial analysts have to judge the performance of Indian companies. However, it must be acknowledged that in spite of the non-availability of financial data and non-mandatory disclosures of EVA, it has shown a significant positive association with MVA.

Given the rapid development of

Given the rapid development of the Islamic banking sector, it is reasonable to expect that the performance of Islamic banks has become the center of attention among Islamic bank managers, stakeholders, policymakers, and regulators. Berger and Humphrey (1997) point out that studies focusing on the efficiency of financial institutions have become an important part of banking literature since the early 1990s. Furthermore, Berger, Hancock, and Humphrey (1993) suggest that if banks are efficient, they could expect improvement in profitability levels, better prices and service quality for consumers, and greater amounts of funds intermediated.
Although considerable developments in the Islamic banking sectors worldwide, very few attention has been given on the efficiency of its operations. Instead of focusing on the Islamic banks’ expansion, it is better to examine their efficiency level to ensure their improvement sustainability. Therefore, the ultimate objective of this study is to examine the efficiency of foreign and domestic Islamic banks in Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei over the SBI-0206965 of 2006–2014. Furthermore, this paper focuses on the question whether the efficiency of foreign banks differs from domestic Islamic banks. Why would the efficiency of a foreign bank differ from the efficiency of domestic bank? According to Lensink, Meesters, and Naaborg (2008) and Demirguc-Kunt and Huizinga (2000) there are two important reasons for this. First, foreign banks may be less subject to domestic credit allocation rules than domestic banks. Second, domestic banks may have informational advantages relative to foreign banks.
By employing a non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method, we analyze the technical efficiency (TE), pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE) of foreign and domestic Islamic banks in Malaysian, Indonesia and Brunei over the period of 2006 to 2014. In addition to DEA, this study performs a series of parametric (t-test) and non-parametric (Mann-Whitney [Wilcoxon] and Kruskall-Wallis) tests to examine whether the foreign and domestic banks are drawn from the same population.
The article begins with a brief review of related studies. Section 3 discusses on the methods employed in the study and variables employed in the panel regression analysis. We present the empirical findings in Section 4. The article concludes and provides discussions on the policy implications in Section 5.

Review of literature review
Despite considerable developments in the Islamic banking sector, there have been very limited studies done focusing on the efficiency of Islamic banks. To date, empirical evidence examining the performance of the Islamic banking sector focuses more on the profitability with the help of financial ratios and are constrained by the time span and the number of Islamic banks (Rahim, Bakar & Ganapathy, 2015). However, studies that address the efficiency of foreign and domestic Islamic banks from Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei are scanty. Therefore, before go further, we should understand the theories of efficiency and ownership of the banking sectors.

Methodology

Empirical results
Before proceeding with the discussion of DEA results, this study first tested the rule of thumb on the selection of inputs and outputs variables suggested by Cooper et al. (2002). Since the total number of DMUs (29 banks) in this study is more than the numbers of inputs and outputs variables (3 inputs x 2 outputs @ 3 [3 inputs + 2 outputs]), the selection of variables are valid since it complies with the rule of thumb and allows the efficiencies of DMUs to be measured.
According to Isik and Hassan (2002), constructing an annual frontier specific to each year is more flexible and more suitable than estimating a single multiyear frontier for the banks in the sample. Based on the earlier studies, for the purpose of the study, separate annual efficiency frontier for each year is more preferable. Therefore, there were nine separate frontiers (2006–2014) constructed for the study. According to Isik and Hassan (2002), the principal advantage of having panel data is the ability to observe each bank more than once over a period of time. The issue is also critical in a continuously changing business environment due to the technology of a bank that is most efficient in one period may not be the most efficiency in another. In addition, it also may reduce the problems related to the lack of random error in DEA by allowing an efficient bank in one period to be inefficient in another, assuming that the errors owing to luck or data problems are not consistent over time (Isik & Hassan, 2002; Sufian et al., 2008).

br Experimental Procedures br Author Contributions br

Experimental Procedures

Author Contributions

Acknowledgments
M. Ieda was supported by research grants from JST CREST, JSPS, Keio University Program for the Advancement of Next Generation Research Projects, Banyu Life Science, Senshin Medical Research Foundation, and Takeda Science Foundation, and H.Y. was supported by research grants from Ichiro Kanehara Foundation and Keio University Medical Science Fund.

Introduction
The pluripotency regulators OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 form a core transcription regulatory network through auto- and reciprocal activations at the transcription level, which is believed to be responsible for the maintenance of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) pluripotency (Boyer et al., 2005). At the same time, multiple protein factors belonging to a diversity of functional categories, such as transcription factors, epigenetic factors, and signaling components, work cooperatively to form an expanded pluripotency factor network that supports the core pluripotency network (Boyer et al., 2005). In contrast to the well-defined core network, our knowledge of this expanded pluripotency network, including its components, the interactions between these neuraminidase inhibitor components, and the mechanism of interaction between the expanded network and the core network, remains insufficient.
Bioactive small molecules have been applied to the field of hESC research with success. Many such studies have applied small molecules as modulators of lineage-specific differentiations (Borowiak et al., 2009; Chen et al., 2009, 2012; Gonzalez et al., 2011a; Lian et al., 2012; Mahmood et al., 2010). Other studies have exploited small molecules as chemical probes to uncover novel molecular mechanisms underlying hESC pluripotency or differentiation (Chen et al., 2006; Xu et al., 2010; Zhu et al., 2009). High-throughput screenings (HTS) were usually conducted for the search of such molecules. If the mechanism of action was unknown for a given molecule, affinity-based target identification methods can be used to identify its biological target(s). These studies have been used to identify novel protein factors and to unveil previously unknown molecular mechanisms that regulate hESC fate determination (Xu et al., 2008).
In recent years, hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem neuraminidase inhibitor (hiPSCs) have been used successfully for HTS in several studies (Barbaric et al., 2010; Ben-David et al., 2013; Desbordes et al., 2008; Gonzalez et al., 2011b; Kameoka et al., 2014; Kumagai et al., 2013; Manganelli et al., 2014; Xu et al., 2010). However, the high cost associated with the maintenance and scale-up of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) inevitably limits the scale of their application in HTS studies. We chose to explore an alternative source of pluripotent stem cells, human embryonal carcinoma cells (hECCs), as a robust platform for HTS with low cost. hECCs are pluripotent stem cells derived from human teratocarcinomas and are considered to be the malignant counterparts of hESCs. The molecular regulatory mechanism of hECC pluripotency has been shown to mimic that of hESCs (Josephson et al., 2007). Because of their cancerous nature, hECCs are not prone to spontaneous differentiation and require a less demanding culture condition compared with hPSCs. Experimental results acquired from studies using hECCs have been proven to be highly stable and readily reproducible (Josephson et al., 2007), making hECCs ideal candidate platforms for HTS purposes.

Results

Discussion
HTS has been used for the discovery of novel small molecule compounds that regulate PSC fate. Such studies require the use of pluripotent cell lines as screening platforms. Commonly available pluripotent platforms include mouse and human ESCs, mouse and human ECCs, and the more recently established mouse and human iPSCs. The earliest attempts of pluripotency regulator screenings adopted mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and mouse embryonal carcinoma cells (mECCs) as their screening platforms (Chen et al., 2006; Ding et al., 2003; Zhu et al., 2009). More recently, several hESC- and hiPSC-based HTSs have been reported (Barbaric et al., 2010; Ben-David et al., 2013; Desbordes et al., 2008; Gonzalez et al., 2011b; Kameoka et al., 2014; Kumagai et al., 2013; Manganelli et al., 2014; Xu et al., 2010). Compared with those platforms, we believe that hECCs have been underappreciated for HTS. hECCs are cheap and easy to passage and maintain, are robust in maintaining a pluripotent state and not prone to spontaneous differentiation, and are of human origin and highly similar to hESCs in their molecular regulatory mechanism of pluripotency (Josephson et al., 2007). These qualities collectively make hECCs an ideal system for HTS purposes, but, to date, to our knowledge, only one attempt has been made to use hECCs for a HTS study in which 80 chemical compounds were screened (Barbaric et al., 2011). In comparison, our hECC-based HTS platform was used to successfully screen a significant number (171,077) of chemical compounds in this study.

Our findings directly interface with

Our findings directly interface with the role of CXCL12 (SDF1)/CXCR4 signaling in adult HSPC migration: CXCL12 levels increase in response to stress and inflammation, and influence HSPC mobilization and extravasation within the adult BM (Dar et al., 2006). As hematopoietic niches are hypoxic during HSPC specification, budding, and migration and recently shown to be under inflammatory regulation, our discovery that Mmp9-mediated modulation of Cxcl12 signaling is necessary to ensure proper HSPC maturation in the ANA 12 Supplier illustrates functional parallels between embryonic and adult niches, despite differing cellular components. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis has previously been therapeutically exploited to improve HSC transplantation: the CXCR4 inhibitor plerixafor (AMD3100), which prevents CXCL12 binding, is administered before BM donation to increase HSPC mobilization (Dar et al., 2006). The HSPC mobilizing agent Me6Tren also promotes HSPC migration by inducing MMP9, leading to disruption of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling (Zhang et al., 2013). This shows the therapeutic relevance of our characterization of the relationship between chemokine signaling, MMP9, and HSPC migration, and raises the possibility that administration of CXCL12/CXCR4 modulators with known inducers of HSPC specification and expansion, such as PGE2, may ensure that HSPCs can correctly home to and seed the recipient BM niche.
Taken together, our data and the previously described roles of MMP2 and MMP9 in tissue remodeling (Giannandrea and Parks, 2014), cytokine regulation (Parks et al., 2004), and cell migration/localization (Zhang et al., 2013) suggest a model whereby these enzymes provide HSPCs with physical “permission” to leave the niches and move to other hematopoietic sites, likely affecting their maturation, expansion, or function. The wide variety of substrates cleaved by MMPs and their expression throughout embryonic development and in the adult suggests that MMP2 and MMP9 are part of a larger mechanism by which the niche provides instructive cues affecting organ development and homeostasis. Further understanding of the intersections between inflammatory signaling, ECM remodeling, and hematopoiesis could be exploited to improve in vitro and in vivo HSPC expansion efforts, as well as HSC mobilization and transplantation. Here, we find that via a combination of direct and indirect mechanisms, including ECM degradation and regulation of chemokine activity, Mmp2 and Mmp9 work to maintain HSPC equilibrium within embryonic hematopoietic niches. This work furthers our understanding of the biophysical details underlying embryonic HSPC production and function in vivo.

Experimental Procedures

Author Contributions

Introduction
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a distinct population of multipotent cells that can self-renew and differentiate into various types of blood cells and thus are responsible for maintenance and homeostasis of a healthy hematopoietic system (Morrison et al., 1995; Orford and Scadden, 2008; Orkin and Zon, 2008). HSCs are exposed daily to internal and external stresses which in turn lead to DNA damage. Accumulation of DNA damage in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) during the cell\’s life span is a factor of hematopoietic system aging and degeneration, and likely contributes to transformation and cancer development (Rossi et al., 2008). Accelerated bone marrow (BM) degeneration leading to BM failure and high risks of leukemia development is frequently observed in diseases with a deficiency in DNA repair pathways such as Fanconi anemia (FA) (Taniguchi and D\’Andrea, 2006).
FA is an inherited disease caused by mutations in any of 17 already identified FA DNA repair pathway genes (FANCA-S) (Kottemann and Smogorzewska, 2013; Sawyer et al., 2015). FA proteins have been mainly studied for their role in genomic DNA repair and genome integrity. Upon DNA damage, eight of the FA proteins (FANCA, -B, -C, -E, -F, -G, -L, and -M) interact to form the FA core complex responsible for FANCD2 and FANCI activation by mono-ubiquitination (Kottemann and Smogorzewska, 2013). FANCD2 activation is essential for genome integrity maintenance upon double DNA strand break or interstrand crosslinking by favoring the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair pathway.

Furthermore when analysed under the light of Foucault

Furthermore, when ras pathway analysed under the light of Foucault\’s archaeology, Veblen\’s proposal can be interpreted as a discourse “waiting to happen”. Foucault\’s archaeology of knowledge is marked by the existence of strong discontinuities between different epistemic periods in the history of knowledge. In The Order of Things there were two radical discontinuities separating three epistemes. On the other hand, it is fundamental to keep in mind that within the same epistemic conditions there are not thick borders separating different sciences. Because political economy and biology shared the same conditions of possibility, they must be open to interdiscursive practice between themselves. Therefore, a Foucauldian way to read the critical moment of the history of economic thought focused here is that, in the modern episteme, the total set of relations that unite the discursive practices gave rise to the epistemological figure of non-teleology in economics, and, in particular, this happened in a set of texts associated to the author called “Veblen”.

Final remarks

Introduction
Two of the most important opinion research institutes in Brazil, Sensus and Datafolha, collect measures of the President\’s public evaluation, providing their poll respondents with three alternative answers to his/her performance: positive, regular and negative. The former president of Brazil, Luis Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula) reached a staggering positive rate of 72.5% in February 2009. By adding the proportion of respondents that evaluated the president as being regular, which is the rating that we define as “approval”, the figure rises to an outstanding 94.2%, making him one of the most popular presidents in the history of Brazil. In the first hundred days in office, the “honeymoon” period, Lula\’s average positive rating was at nearly 50%. Even after the end of this period, ratings never fell below 29% positive evaluation.
As well as analyzing the fascinating case of Lula\’s high popularity vis a vis the economic and political scenario, the importance of the present paper rests on three further factors. First of all, Brazil is the largest and wealthiest country in Latin America. With a ras pathway of more than 190 million, it represents 34% of Latin America\’s total population, and its 2006 GDP of approximately US$ 1.1 billion, corresponds to nearly 38% of the region\’s figure.
This paper has three further sections, besides this introduction. Section 2 discusses the economical and political background while Section 3 presents the related literature concerning government evaluation and economic performance. Section 4 describes the methodological approach and the dataset explored in the empirical tests. The estimation results are presented and discussed in Section 5. Finally, the concluding remarks are presented.

Economic and political background

Literature review
The literature that focuses on the evaluation of political leaders based on economic performance is diverse. Some of the papers consider that economic voting is based on the idea that the electorate relies, at least in part, on past economic performance when evaluating the incumbent relative to alternative candidates. Aggregate data usually supports the perception that in presidential and congressional elections, the incumbent gets credit for good economic times and is blamed for bad ones. Kramer (1971) was one of the first to show such evidence for the USA – Kinder and Kiewiet (1981), Peltzman (1990) and Leigh and Wolfers (2006) are additional references that give support to the same idea. Regarding other single-country studies analyzed by the most recent literature, Jordahl (2006) also found evidence that good macroeconomic conditions increase the number of votes received by the incumbent government in Sweden. Concerning a Latin-American country, Cerda and Vergara (2007) use a panel of Chilean municipalities and conclude that a rise in the national rate of unemployment decreases the incumbent\’s share of votes in presidential elections. Finally, shedding light on multi-country studies, Brender and Drazen (2005) evaluate how the probability of reelection of chief executives is affected by fiscal behavior in a panel of countries between 1960 and 2003. The results indicate that voters do not reward politicians who engage in an election-year budget manipulation. In developed countries and consolidated democracies, the result is the opposite and suggests that voters are more likely to return chief executives to power if proteins have promoted reductions in the debt to GDP ratio. This suggests that voters in developed and in developing countries are influenced differently by the economic policies carried out by their respective governments.

Klemperer follows up and notes that switching costs are

Klemperer (1995) follows up and notes that switching costs are quite common and can lead to important consequences, such as welfare losses similar to those observed in an oligopoly and barriers to new entrants. Padilla (1992) develops a model in which ex ante identical firms have ex post asymmetric market shares, while Padilla (1995) shows that in an infinite horizon model with stationary Markovian strategies, the strength of hematopoietic stem cells is reduced.
Although the literature on switching costs is extensive, empirical research encounters difficulties in obtaining information on changes in the suppliers used by each individual, especially in the case of the banking sector. These switching costs are viewed in the corporate finance literature as stemming from an asymmetric information problem between the borrower and the lender, as noted in a review of the relationship banking literature by Boot (2000). Another issue faced in the corporate finance literature that creates switching costs is moral hazard, as noted by Boot et al. (1993). Empirical evidence supporting this channel is provided by Bharath et al. (2007).
The scarcity of studies accurately estimating supplier change is due to the mostly customer-specific unobserved opportunity costs. They reflect human capital requirements for changing suppliers, as well as some informational advantage that the incumbent supplier has over its competitors, and represent a utility loss that sometimes cannot be directly calculated from the data, as highlighted by Shy (2002). As noted by Kim et al. (2003), the transition individual-level data required are rarely available to researchers. In this context, both papers develop methods based on equilibrium assumptions about the effect of switching costs on market conduct. Shy (2002) develops an equilibrium concept, called Undercut Proofness, and Kim et al. (2003) start from the assumptions developed in Klemperer (1987c) hematopoietic stem cells and proposes some extensions, such as relaxing the assumption of no switching in equilibrium.This advance has some important empirical consequences, since empirical evidence indicates that there is a substantial amount of switching, as also noticed in the Klemperer (1995) review.
Kim et al. (2003) start by considering an n firm oligopoly that competes in prices (à la Bertrand) for a non-storable good. Consumers have inelastic demands and maximize their utilities by choosing which firm to buy from given a price vector. It is assumed that consumers have in mind that changing suppliers is costly and add switching costs to the prices charged by the firms from which they did not buy earlier. This behavior produces transition probabilities, which are functions of prices and switching costs, that are in turn aggregated to generate firm demand. The details will be provided in the next section.

Methodology
The methodology used here follows the framework developed by Kim et al. (2003), with a focus on the provision of bank deposit services. The model is formulated to allow the estimation of the structural parameters using aggregate data and is based on the theoretical analysis of customer switching cost effects in the market by Klemperer (1987b), with an additional assumption the customer can change banks in every period.
The starting point is the probability that a customer continues purchasing from the same firm:where is the probability that a customer who bought in the previous period from firm i keeps buying from the same firm in next period, and p is the price charged by firm i. Here, is an (n−1) vector of prices offered by rivals other than i, and is a vector of switching costs equal to the scalar s multiplied by a unit vector (n−1): . Thus, Eq. (1) means that the probability that the consumer continues his relationship with bank i depends on the price charged by all banks, taking switching costs into account.
Since switching costs are probably different for each customer, s can be interpreted as an average switching cost. Customer-specific deviations from this mean are captured by the slope of the transition probability function, while bank-specific changes in average cost are captured at the level of the function.