Monthly Archives: February 2018

For the anti inflammatory activity

For the anti-inflammatory activity, compounds with aliphatic side chain (4) and (5) were more active than that with aromatic one. Compound (5), the most active purchase NU7441 among all the test compounds, contains aliphatic side chain. The relative potency of this compound was 74% of the reference’s potency, as shown in Table 4. Pyridine containing compound (7) was more active than those with pyrimidine or oxazole instead. Within the pyrimidine and oxazole derivatives, dimethylated derivatives (10) and (11) were less active than monomethylated one (9) and methyl free one (8). The results of acute toxicity test which have been done to all test compounds indicated to their good safety margin. Although the title compounds exhibited potent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory actions, moderate anti-inflammatory activity was found. Hence, necessary structural modifications are planned in the future study to increase the anti-inflammatory activity. In general, the present study showed that compound (5) was the most active compound with combined ability to inhibit bacterial infection and inflammation. This compound could therefore serve as a lead molecule for further modification to obtain clinically useful antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents.

Conclusion

Experimental

Acknowledgments

Introduction
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality (Lee and Thomas, 2007). ADRs are both reversible and preventable at many instances, which increase the importance of early identification and treatment of them. The preventable nature of adverse reactions is the motivation for current ADR reporting programs (Tsounonis, 2006; Ting et al., 2010). ADR and its related aspects require a multidisciplinary approach wherein various health care professionals have to make a significant contribution; especially pharmacists. Most often, the pharmacist is in a unique position to safeguard the patient from preventable ADRs (Tsounonis, 2006). Pharmacist participation can greatly help overcome underreporting of ADRs (Zolezzi and Parsotam, 2005; Elkami et al., 2011; Grootheest et al., 2004). Their role in the education of other healthcare professionals about the prevention, detection and reporting of ADRs is integral.
Pharmacist’s role in pharmacovigilance may vary from country to country. (Grootheest et al., 2004) Studies assessing the knowledge, attitude and behavior of pharmacists in ADR related aspects have been reported in various countries, including in Middle East and North Africa regions (MENA) Ting et al., 2010; Zolezzi and Parsotam, 2005; Elkami et al., 2011; Grootheest et al., 2004; Mes et al., 2002; Toklu and Uysal, 2004; Green et al., 1999; Herderiro et al., 2006; Rouleau et al., 2011; Gavaza et al., 2011; Bawazir, 2006; Vessal et al., 2009. Various levels of the knowledge of community pharmacists in pharmacovigilance have been reported in various countries as well as various factors influencing their involvement (Grootheest et al., 2004).
Oman has a pharmacovigilance program functioning under the auspices of the Drug Control Department, Directorate General of Pharmacy Affairs and Drugs Control, Sultanate of Oman. (Adverse drug reaction reporting in Oman, 2012) All the health care professionals are expected to report ADRs to the center as part of the pharmacovigilance program. The directorate carries out active training programs for the health care professionals including community pharmacists on pharmacovigilance. According to the statistics of 2012 of the Drug Control Department of Oman, there are 1200 registered pharmacists working in the community sector in 476 establishments. Pharmacist’s perception of their role with regard to ADR reporting and related activities can greatly influence their contribution and the same needs to be evaluated. Pharmacists as drug experts are expected to have good knowledge regarding the safety related aspects of drugs and it would be ideal to know their knowledge on drug safety as representative information. There are no published studies from Oman which tried to evaluate these important aspects. Hence, this pilot study was conducted with the aim of assessing the knowledge, attitude and behavior of community pharmacists on ADR related aspects.

Rapalink-1 Supplier Permanent visual loss has been reported to occur in as

Permanent visual loss has been reported to occur in as high as 15–20% of these patients, making early and correct diagnosis critical. Several attempts, such as the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, have been made to diagnosis GCA without temporal artery biopsy. However, Murchison et al. found that the use of ACR criteria alone could miss up to 25% of GCA diagnoses. Thus, temporal artery biopsy remains the diagnostic gold standard for GCA.
The medium-sized extracranial arteries are most frequently affected clinically in GCA. However, occasionally, the Rapalink-1 Supplier and its branches to the arms and neck or elsewhere are involved.

Systemic symptoms

Visual symptoms
Sudden, severe, and sequential vision loss is the hallmark of giant cell arteritis. The vision loss is usually discovered upon awakening in the morning. Visual acuity is usually less than 20/200 in greater than 60% of patients who lose vision. The fellow eye usually gets involved within days to weeks of the initial eye. In addition to causing a sudden permanent vision loss, GCA can present weeks earlier with amaurosis fugax or a temporary loss of vision which is due to partial occlusion of the short posterior ciliary arteries or central retinal artery causing transient ischemia. GCA may initially also present with diplopia or eye pain. Cranial nerve palsies (3, 4, or 6) or ischemic myopathy may rarely occur. This reinforces the point that any elderly patient presenting to the eye clinic with visual symptoms or eye pain should be considered to be a GCA suspect until proven otherwise. This mode of thinking will help minimize permanent vision loss in GCA patients.

AION in GCA
Sudden vision loss in GCA occurs most often due to an inflammatory thrombosis of the short posterior ciliary arteries. The short posterior ciliary arteries form a fine vascular network that supplies the optic disk. When these vessels become thrombosed with inflammation, a stroke to the optic disk occurs. This is called anterior ischemic optic neuropathy or AION (Fig. 1). AION is characterized by a swollen optic disk accompanied by hemorrhages and sometimes exudates. The swollen optic disk may have a chalky white appearance in GCA. This pallid swelling (Fig. 2) is due to the extreme ischemia of GCA. Rarely, the ischemia to the optic nerve occurs posteriorly, and therefore there is no disk swelling. In this instance, it is called posterior ischemic optic neuropathy or PION.
About 5–10% of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) cases over the age of 60 are due to giant cell arteritis. The other 90–95% are due to garden-variety non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). The risk factors for NAION include the disk-at-risk appearance of the optic disk (cup-to-disk ratio<0.1), nocturnal hypotension (taking blood pressure medicines at night), sleep apnea, uncontrolled hypertension, diabetes, and tobacco abuse. Bilateral involvement of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in temporal arteritis is not uncommon. In untreated cases, it occurs 54–95% of the time. Cotton wool spots may also be seen in the retina and indicate concurrent retinal ischemia. Fluorescein angiography (FA) may be helpful to identify choroidal hypoperfusion and aid in the timely diagnosis of GCA.
Laboratory diagnosis
The two most important labs to order to help make the diagnosis of GCA are the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and the C-Reactive Protein (CRP). These two lab values, if elevated, indicate systemic inflammation. If either blood value is high, this may point you to a diagnosis of GCA, but one must remember that the ESR and/or CRP may be elevated from other causes of systemic inflammation like infection, malignancy, Diabetes, or other auto-immune diseases like Lupus or Rheumatoid arthritis. Top normal for ESR in men can be calculated by Age divided by 2, women (Age+10) divided by 2. This rule may disagree with normal values from individual laboratories but tends to be more correct.

After obtaining an informed consent the patient

After obtaining an informed consent, the patient was scheduled to undergo cataract extraction (refractive lens exchange) in her right eye, targeting for a plano refraction. Biometry was performed using the IOL-Master (version 4.08.0002; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) revealing an axial length of 21.70mm in auda the right eye, with steep [email protected] and flat [email protected] and an axial length of 21.90mm in the left eye, with steep [email protected] and flat [email protected] The IOL-Master keratometric values were utilized to determine the IOL power as they were consistent with topographic keratometric readings; the Holladay I formula was used to calculate the IOL power (spherical power), while a web-based online toric calculator (www.acrysoftoriccalculator.com) was used to determine the cylindrical correction. A toric SN60T6 (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, USA) with a power of 25 diopters (D) was chosen (axis of toric IOL placement 99°) and the estimated residual refractive error after IOL auda was −0.23D sph and −0.20D cyl @ 30 (for the right eye).
One month after surgery UDVA of the right eye was 20/100, while CDVA was 20/25 (manifest refraction −2.00+0.50×175), reflecting an overestimation of the IOL power for the attempted target.

Discussion
Inaccurate IOL power calculation and unpredictable refractive outcomes are still problematic limitations of cataract surgery in post-corneal refractive patients. These errors are largely the result of 3 factors, with the most important being that neither manual keratometers nor topography devices are able to measure the anterior corneal curvature accurately after refractive surgery. Another limitation is the prediction of the corneal power using the anterior corneal curvature and the standard index of refraction, which incorrectly assumes that there is a constant relationship between the anterior and posterior curvatures of the cornea (this is not true after laser refractive surgery). Finally, using post–refractive surgery keratometry readings will lead to an inaccurate estimation of the effective lens position, in most cases.
Alteration of the anterior corneal curvature may also be achieved by non excimer laser – tissue sparing refractive procedures, such as arcuate and radial keratotomies and conductive keratoplasty. These surgical techniques induce flattening (to correct myopia), steepening (to correct hyperopia or presbyopia) or flattening of the steep meridian (to correct corneal astigmatism). Independent of the actual surgical approach the alterations of the anterior corneal curvature result in inaccurate IOL power calculations based on the limitations described above.
The patient described in this report, received circling keratorraphy 20years prior to presentation. The procedure consists of the placement of a strongly tied, circular intracorneal suture (buried) with an optical zone of 6–8mm in diameter. The force of the suture induces central corneal steepening correcting hyperopia. Similar to other tissue sparing corneal refractive surgeries, there is a significant alteration of the anterior corneal curvature (steepening), which in turn influences keratometric evaluation.
Nevertheless, in this case topographic and IOL-Master keratometric values were consistent. Although the intended target refraction after IOL implantation was plano, an overcorrection of 2D was the result. The patient’s manifest refraction one month after cataract extraction was −2.00+0.50×175 instead of the estimated residual refraction based on IOL-Master and the toric calculator (−0.23D sph and −0.20D cyl @ 30). This myopic outcome (overcorrection) may be attributed to underestimation of the anterior keratometric values, leading to overestimation of the IOL power.

Conflict of interests

Introduction
Amyloidosis is a condition characterized by the deposition of amorphous proteinaceous material in tissues. It is divided into systemic or localized forms. Ocular and palpebral amyloidosis is a rare event and amyloid can be deposited in any part of the orbit, globe, or adnexa.

oxymetazoline hydrochloride This study highlighted a gap

This study highlighted a gap in the knowledge of DPs similar to those reported previously involving the training of medical and dental students (Carter and Ogden, 2007a,b). In addition the results in this study reflect those obtained in a previous study involving dental practitioners that identified the need for improved education (Carter and Ogden, 2007a,b). All of these studies highlighted a need to emphasize the role of alcohol as well as tobacco as a risk factor; and to emphasize the importance of early oral mucosal changes in particular ulcerative lesions and red and white patches. Furthermore, targeted education is needed to prepare oral health providers to undertake oral cancer prevention activities as reported by Patton et al. (2006).
Over 24% of all respondents used a visual examination for the diagnosis of oral premalignant and malignant lesions because this technique is inexpensive, simple, acceptable and has high sensitivity and specificity (Speight et al., 1993; Jullien et al., 1995). This is in oxymetazoline hydrochloride to the report by Kujan et al. (2006) who reported that 89.9% of DPs strongly believed that visual screening is effective in the early detection and prevention of oral cancer.
Despite the reports by numerous investigators (Johnson et al., 1998; British Dental Association, 2000) encouraging dental health providers to use toluidine blue as an adjunct method for screening, few respondents (12.4%) used toluidine blue. This low percentage may reflect issues such as reliability, cost and a lack of robust evidence for its effectiveness or is perhaps a direct response by DPs to the reported high number of false positive results from toluidine blue application (Martin et al., 1998). Likewise Kujan et al. (2006) reported that almost 50% of the dental specialists and 17.5% of DPs did not believe that toluidine blue is effective for the early detection of oral cancer.
Opportunistic screening by DPs includes a systematic examination of the oral mucosa during regular dental care. In the present study, the vast majority of the dentists (83%) were convinced of the efficacy of screening programmes for oral SCC, anticipating that an optimal resourced programme might reduce oral cancer mortality and the majority suggested this would require clinical examination of each patient every 3–6months; this percentage is close to the one reported by other authors in Europe and USA (Yellowitz and Goodman, 1995; McLeod et al., 1998; Kujan et al., 2006). In fact, though much of the potentially malignant lesions which they currently see must follow a comparatively indolent course, most dentists would elect for a screening interval of 6months or less. It would seem that if a regular programme were ever introduced, the arbiter of success or failure would not be professional commitment. Studies support many factors other than knowledge and skills that influence providers’ screening practices (Prout et al., 1992; Green et al., 1980; Battista et al., 1988; Glynn et al., 1990; Pommerenke and Weed, 1991). Given that this is potentially the most serious condition that a DP can prevent/diagnose, consideration should be given to endochondral ossification becoming a mandatory subject for continuing professional development/education.
Lack of awareness of oral cancer risk and clinical signs may also prohibit DP from delivering preventive advice. Our results demonstrated that only 45% of dentists in this study received special training on oral malignancy and premalignancy with 55% attended Ministry of Health organized educational meetings. This provides further evidence for the need of more training for dentists as highlighted by other reporters (Ogden and Ker, 1998; Macpherson et al., 2003). Wardh et al. (2009) used a questionnaire to test oral healthcare practices. The two groups underwent a four hour teaching programme and repeated the questionnaire 2years later. They conclude that specific knowledge was not retained after some time and they suggested continuous use of a new skill for reinforcement.

The tumor will usually displace adjacent teeth and root

The tumor will usually displace adjacent teeth, and root resorption has been infrequently reported (Shafer et al., 2003; Noffke et al., 2007; Chrcanovic et al., 2010). Accurate diagnosis is difficult based on routine radiographs alone, as the features of odontogenic myxomas overlap with those of other lesions. Differential diagnoses suggested based on radiological appearance of odontogenic myxoma include ameloblastoma, intraosseous hemangioma, aneurysmal bone cyst, glandular odontogenic cyst, central giant cell granuloma, cherubism, metastatic tumor, simple cysts, odontogenic keratocyst, and osteosarcoma (Abiose et al., 1987; Li et al., 2006; Chrcanovic et al., 2010). Fibromyxoid sarcoma, myxoid chondrosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma should also be ruled out (Speight, 2013). Some differentiating features of the lesions are described in Table 2. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical features, radiographic appearance, and histopathology. Computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural studies can aid in the correct diagnosis. PET scans may help rule out trifluoperazine (Guo et al., 2014).
Surgery is the treatment of choice, with the treatment protocol depending on the site and size of the tumor. Complete extirpation of the tumor is difficult because infiltration may be more extensive than that observed clinically. Surgery types vary from enucleation and curettage, wide excision, and resection, to radical surgeries involving resection of adjacent tissues (Halfpenny et al., 2000). Allphin et al. (1993) recommended an initially conservative approach, followed by radical surgery if required. When radical surgery is performed, delayed reconstruction has been advised because of the high recurrence rate (Leiser et al., 2009). Odontogenic myxoma is radioresistant (Shafer et al., 2003). Although a few researchers advised pre- or postoperative radiotherapy (Attie et al., 1966; Cuestas-Carneiro et al., 1988), the present consensus is that radiotherapy has no role in the management of odontogenic myxoma. In the present case study, an excisional biopsy was preferred over incisional biopsy to give the patient the best possible treatment under conditions beyond our control. The tumor was situated on the posterior-most part of ramus; therefore, an extraoral approach was chosen for reasons of accessibility and extension of exposure if required.
Odontogenic myxoma is notorious for a high recurrence rate of up to 25% after curettage (McFarland et al., 1996; Speight, 2013). A minimum follow-up period of 5 years without recurrence is recommended by some researchers before performing reconstructive surgeries. (Leiser et al., 2009). Rocha et al. (2009) reported a case of recurrent odontogenic myxoma 30years after surgical treatment, which they treated by combining excision and curettage with cryotherapy.

Conclusion

Conflict of interest

Introduction
The creation of an attractive but natural dental appearance has become a critical treatment success criterion in all fields of dentistry, in particular, in prosthetic and restorative dentistry (Carlsson et al., 2008). Smile (teeth and perioral tissues) is considered an expression of utmost importance in reflecting an individual’s personality (Niaz et al., 2015). It is reported that patients show a particular desire for pearly white teeth (Qualtrough and Burke, 1994; Alkhatib et al., 2004) as they are associated with high ratings of social competence, intellectual ability, psychological adjustment and relationship status (Kershaw et al., 2008). Although, shape and alignment of teeth influence the smile attractiveness; the harmony between tooth color and soft tissues is considered precarious in determining individuals’ satisfaction with dental appearance (Qualtrough and Burke, 1994; Tam and Lee 2012).
The process of shade selection is a continuous challenge for dental professionals as they attempt to satisfy the esthetic requirements of patients. The perception of tooth color is subjective and influenced by many factors, including the type of light, reflection and absorption of light by the tooth, adaptation state of the observer and the context in which the tooth is viewed (Sabherwal et al., 2009). In terms of the viewing context, perceived brightness and hue of the tooth can change depending upon the brightness and color of the background respectively (Dunn et al., 1996). Sabherwal et al., studied the effect of variations in skin color on the perceptions of smile attractiveness for a given tooth shade value. They reported, that variations in skin color for most tooth shade values influenced dentists’ perceived smile attractiveness (Sabherwal et al., 2009). In addition, subjects with darker skin were rated the lowest in comparison with subjects with other skin colors (Sabherwal et al., 2009). Furthermore, perceived tooth whiteness and attractiveness are influenced by the color of surrounding lips and gingiva (Reno et al., 2000). In a study by Reno et al., it was concluded that a magenta hue appeared to enhance the perceived whiteness of tooth color, whereas yellow and darker hues failed to show such impact (Reno et al., 2000) Moreover, gender is also reported to influence shade matching, and females are significantly better at shade-matching than males (Haddad et al., 2009). However the evidence related to the influence of facial outline and features among males and females and its impact on shade perception is not available. It is noteworthy that these studies (Reno et al., 2000; Sabherwal et al., 2009) were performed among dental professionals and an opinion of the general population might differ from them on the basis of dental exposure and social experiences (Nakhaei et al., 2016; Pohlen et al., 2016).

br Discussion P aeruginosa is a leading

Discussion
P. aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and bacteremia. The infections can be particularly severe in patients with impaired immune systems, such as neutropenic or cancer patients (Pagani et al., 2004). Infections caused by P. aeruginosa are difficult to treat as the majority of isolates show varying degrees of inherent resistance. Acquired resistance is also reported by the production of plasmid mediated AmpC beta (beta)-lactamase, ESBL and metallo beta-lactamase enzymes (Manchanda and Singh, 2008).
In the present study we observed that 25.13% (n=47) P. aeruginosa were ESBL producers. The frequency of ESBL producing isolates was highest in sputum (41.67%) followed by pus (28.36%), cerebrospinal fluid and other body fluids (21.74%), urine (20.45%) and blood (13.79%). This is in harmony with the findings of Aggarwal et al. (2008).
The ESBL producing P. aeruginosa isolates exhibited co-resistance against most of the tgf beta receptor inhibitor tested. This is consistent with most of the recent findings (Bandekar et al., 2011; Begum et al., 2013). All ESBL producing P. aeruginosa isolates were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. This is in harmony with the findings of Okesola and Oni (2012).
The introduction of carbapenems into clinical practice represented a great advance for the treatment of serious bacterial infections caused by beta-lactam resistant bacteria. Due to their broad spectrum of activity and stability to hydrolysis by most beta lactamases, carbapenems have been the drug of choice for treatment of infections caused by penicillin or cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacilli especially, ESBL producing Gram-negative infections (Mendiratta et al., 2005).

Conclusion
The present study determines the prevalence of ESBL producing P. aeruginosa with limited susceptibility to antimicrobials in hospital environment. In order to combat these problems proper antibiotic policies should be formulated. Further, it was observed that all the ESBL-producing isolates were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem. This brings due relief as these are the drugs of choice in the treatment of Pseudomonas infection.

Acknowledgment
The financial support provided by the Department of Science & Technology (DST), New Delhi, India, Grant No. IF130056 to S Shaikh is deeply acknowledged.

Introduction
The prevalence and incidence of kidney stone is a major cause of death all over the world. Life time prevalence of symptomatic nephrolithiasis is around 10% in men and 5% in women and about more than $2 billion spent each year for treatment purpose (Taylor and Curhan, 2008; Taylor et al., 2005). A number of different kinds of factors are involved in increasing the risk of kidney stone formation like; excess calcium, phosphate, oxalate and uric acid in the urine, inadequate hydration, lack of stone inhibitors in the urine, family history of stone (Curhan et al., 1997), daily urine volume, high, large body size (Curhan et al., 1998), some medications and ongoing urine infection (Sowers et al., 1998; Stamatelou et al., 2003; Pandeya et al., 2010; Leonetti et al., 1998). Dietary risk factors play a very vital role in stone formation. There is a proof that diminished fluid and calcium consumption is a strong risk factor (Stamatiou et al., 2006; Hirvonen et al., 1999), increased consumption of oxalate is also a major contributor to enhance the stone formation (Taylor and Curhan, 2008). It is verified by epidemiological studies that increased sodium, salt and animal proteins intake have an equivocal impact on stone formation risk (Curhan et al., 1997; Stamatelou et al., 2003). The global climate changes, which is an environmental factor also promote the rates of kidney stone disease. The broad consensus is that average global temperatures have increased Curhan et al. (1997). Common clinical conditions involving the kidney stone formation have been linked to a number of medical co morbidities including obesity (Taylor and Curhan, 2008), diabetes mellitus, hypertension (Cappuccio et al., 1990), chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular problems (Rule et al., 2009). Stones of kidneys can be easily diagnosed with sudden onset of pain, blood excretion from urine and stones that appear on X-ray. Analyzing the stone prior to treatment is important because it helps to decide on the different options for treatment. Majority of the stones can be treated without undergoing surgery and about 90% of the stones will pass by themselves within 3–6weeks. In these cases the only medication required is pain relief. In cases where the pain onset is severe and unbearable then hospital admission and analgesia may be required (Stamatiou et al., 2006).

cetrimonium bromide Nutrition plays a critical role

Nutrition plays a critical role in the development of the ovary in mud crabs. Scientific studies on mud crab, Scylla broodstock nutrition have been conducted in the last three decades by several authors (Marichamy et al., 1986; Samarasinghe et al., 1991; Marichamy, 1996; Fortes, 1999a; Saha et al., 2000; Trino et al., 2001; Christensen et al., 2004; Alava et al., 2007a; Manivannan et al., 2010). The mud crab broodstock reproductive performance and larval productions are majorly dependant on variation of maturation diets (Fortes, 1999b; Qiao et al., 2010). The natural diets are largely used for broodstock culture during the hatchery production. However, the use of natural feeds requires proper management to avoid deterioration of water quality which indirectly affects the culture environment. On the other hand, the formulated feed could provide sufficient nutrition to broodstock as well as to stimulate the ovarian maturation. The artificial diet offers many advantages compared to the natural diet or fresh feed which include, known nutrient content such as total lipid and protein, readily available supply throughout all the culture period and offering the opportunity to orally administer drugs either cetrimonium bromide or vitamins (Djunaidah et al., 2003). However, the preparation of the formulated diets will increase the production cost of mud crab hatchery (Petersen et al., 2013) and require more preparation time, which indirectly affects the continuance of the hatchery production.
This review can provide important information for a better understanding of the broodstock maturation diets and management of mud crab, Scylla species for further commercial seed and sustainable food productions.

Broodstock management

Types of maturation diet
During the last 10years, many attentions have been focused on the broodstock nutrition as well as the role and effect of various components of broodstock diet, such as lipid, cholesterol, protein especially on their maturation status (Anderson et al., 2004). Broodstock nutrition is without doubt one of the most outstanding reasons that affects the reproductive performance of most crustacean (Chung et al., 2011; Alava et al., 2007a). Broodstock nutrition affected directly the maturation of the ovary where the restriction of food can seriously inhibit the ovarian maturation in several Scylla species (Alava et al., 2007a; Djunaidah et al., 2003). In this review, three main diets were considered: natural diet (fresh feed), formulated feed (artificial diet), and mixed feed (combination of natural and artificial diet).

Reproductive performance and larval quality

Problems associated with mud crab broodstock
Poor nutrition on the broodstock also resulted in reduced fecundity, fertilization and larval starvation of Portunid crab (Oniam et al., 2012; Djunaidah et al., 2003). During embryonic development, the normal development is influenced by the availability of essential nutrients which are supplied via the broodstock diets (Izquierdo et al., 2001). These nutrients such as amino acids, vitamins and essential fatty acids are important during embryonic development which in turn affect the egg morphology, hatching rates as well as vitellogenin synthesis (Izquierdo et al., 2001). Moreover, the reliance of the embryo and newly hatched larvae on the egg yolk nutrition is essential in understanding the nutrient requirements of broodstock (Alava et al., 2007b). Other problems associated with the Scylla broodstock were also been done by the Lavilla-Pitogo et al. (2001) and they stated that shell disease, bacterial contamination of the hemolymph, parasitic infestation are the main factors to develop better broodstock for hatchery seed production. In addition, the preliminary study also showed that the fungus infections were also the main problem in the maintenance of the broodstock in the hatchery culture of the mud crab, genus Scylla (Ikhwanuddin, unpublished data). The lack of information on the changes in the ovary during reproductive cycle is one of the important factors that limits the expansion and development of the mud crab seed hatchery technology.

Therefore this study aimed to investigate the antifungal effectiveness

Therefore, this prostaglandin receptor study aimed to investigate the antifungal effectiveness of five different cosmetic formulations widely sold in Brazil against ringworm and dandruff dermatophytes in vitro. Moreover, microbiological and physicochemical quality parameters were assessed for all formulations. Our data indicated that the formulations can be considered safe given the adequate microbiological and physicochemical characteristics shown in the proposed assays, and were effective against the tested dermatophytes. To our knowledge, the effectiveness of Brazilian cosmetic formulations against fungal biofilms is shown for the first time. Given the scarcity of studies in this field, our data become even more relevant.

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

Conclusion
The formulations were considered effective against the explored dermatophytes and were considered safe given the adequate microbiological and physicochemical characteristics shown in the proposed assays. Our data open doors in cosmetics microbiology by showing antifungal activity of cosmetic products against dermatophytes biofilms in a simple in vitro model. This study also opens doors for new in vitro assays with clinical isolates of dermatophytes, and also suggests the implementation of biofilm assays for pharmaceutical development of antidandruff formulations.

Acknowledgments
The authors are thankful to Luciene dos Reis Fagundes, from the Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality Control Laboratory at Biocilin Cosméticos, for the technical assistance during the experiments. RMDS is recipient of a CNPq Masters fellowship, and MVDS is supported by Grants from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG).

Introduction
Socotra Island is an example of a site influenced for centuries by human-livestock interaction. The island has been inhabited for 3000years (Cerny et al., 2009) by the descendants of a South Arabian language group within the Semitic language family (Morris, 2002). The main way of the livelihood of local inhabitants is extensively practised transhuman pastoralism and to a lesser extent also fishing. Grazing practices have influenced plant communities and contributed significantly to the contemporary distribution and structure of woody populations around the island (Van Damme and Banfield, 2011), including endemic Commiphora spp., Boswellia spp., Dendrosicyos socotrana, Dracaena cinnabari (by some authors “the dragon’s blood tree”) and other trees. As a result, the most extensive vegetation type is presently low grazed shrubland dominated by Euphorbiaceae (e.g., Jatropha unicostata), species unpalatable to livestock.
The charismatic D. cinnabari groves contribute significantly to the island’s biodiversity and have dominated Socotra’s landscape for millennia, from 250ma.s.l. up to the highest areas of the mountains. In the past, the third altitudinal vegetation zone on Socotra (Habrova, 2004) was characterised by the presence of D. cinnabari forests and woodlands. However, its current presence (Kral and Pavlis, 2006; Brown and Mies, 2012; De Sanctis et al., 2013) is limited to sites with lower grazing impact. As a result of intensive grazing, pastures and low/dwarf shrubland with Croton socotranus and/or Buxanthus pedicellatus predominate (Habrova and Bucek, 2010).
Experimental exclosures (Aerts et al., 2009) are often used as treatments to exclude (or statistically control for) the effects of herbivory on species richness and recruitment in plant communities. Based on many scientific discussions (e.g., Adolt et al., 2012; Adolt and Pavlis, 2004; Attorre et al., 2007; Habrova et al., 2009; Hubalkova, 2011; Scholte and De Geest, 2010 etc.), essential research question has been raised to answer if flagship D. cinnabari can spontaneously regenerate when its seedlings are protected from grazing pressure. Because fenced areas furnish excellent reference plots for interpreting the effect of grazing on vegetation dynamics, an experimental exclosure was established in 2000 on the southwest slope of the Firmihin Plateau. The development of the vegetation in the absence of grazing in this exclosure was studied every year until 2004, when the fence was unfortunately destroyed.

br Conclusions br Acknowledgments The project was financially

Conclusions

Acknowledgments
The project was financially supported by Vice Deanship of Research Chairs, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Authors thank Mr. Mohamed A. Elsharawy for laboratory and technical assistance.

Introduction
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is one of fat-soluble ubiquinone compounds, acts as a hydrogen carrier in the cell respiratory chain, it can activate cell order Y27632 and decrease the oxidative damage from peroxidation and free-radical-induced reaction to the cell membrane in vivo (Salomon and Buchholz, 2000; Portakal and Inal-Erden, 1999). Thus it has been used to reduce physical fatigue, anti-oxidation and improve immunity (Mohammadi-Bardbori et al., 2015; Barbiroli et al., 1999). It was reported that CoQ10 was more effective than vitamin B and E in inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the skin and improving the antisenility effect. Nowadays, CoQ10 is widely used as functional food, drug and health supplements, clinically, it is also used as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, scorbutus, diabetes, gastric ulcers, necrotizing periodontitis, viral hepatitis and cancer (Yang et al., 2015; Villalba et al., 2010).
However, while used as a therapeutic agent with the dosage form such as tablets, capsules, injections, CoQ10 is unstable and difficult to store for a long term due to its large molecular weight, poor water solubility, extreme hydrophobicity, instability to light and thermolability, resulting in the low bioavailability in vivo after oral administration (Yamada et al., 2015; Shao et al., 2015; Butt et al., 2015) Therefore, how to improve the stability and bioavailability with new pharmaceutical technologies has become the hot topic. New formulations that have been developed included the solid dispersion system, cyclodextrin inclusion compound, nanoparticles and microcapsules (Zhou et al., 2014; Onoue et al., 2012; Beg et al., 2010). Preparation of nano-liposomes with long-circulating materials, would help to improve the stability, prolong circulation times and increase the bioavailability of CoQ10. In the present study, new CoQ10 long-circulating liposomes were prepared and developed as freeze-dried preparations, and evaluated in detail by particle size and Zeta potential measurement, content and EE determination, to provide an elementary experiment reference for the in vitro and in vivo release properties.

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion
EE is one of the most important evaluation parameters for liposomes (Ma et al., 2007; Ewert et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2016) Protamine sulfate is one kind of polycation macromolecule and is composed of basic amino acids. After mixing with liposomes protamine sulfate can adsorb to their surface through electrostatic interaction, thus the density of liposomes would be increased and may be separated effectively with free drugs by a lower centrifugal force. For advantages of quickness, simple operation and high efficiency, furthermore, the separation is based on electrostatic attraction and independent of the drugs enveloped in liposomes, thus this method is applicable for EE determination of most of the drugs.
In this study, several EE measurement methods including high speed centrifugation, equilibrium dialysis and Sephadex filtration, had been applied to separate liposomes (Wasungu and Hoekstra, 2006; Safi et al., 2015b) However, due to the poor water solubility of CoQ10, the methods mentioned above cannot be used to separate free drugs and liposomes effectively. Through large experimental validation and comparison with other methods, protamine aggregation method was selected to separate liposomes, which could determine EE accurately.
Instability was the key disadvantage for liposomal formulations, lipid-based vectors would be prone to aggregate and lead to form clustered complexes with larger dimension and higher turbidity (Yang et al., 2013) Further, EE was decreased resulting from the continuing leakage of encapsulated chemicals from lipid layers. As one of the health care products and medicines, how to improve the stability during storage for preparations of CoQ10 was especially important. Through freeze-drying, liposomal structures would become loose and porous, their solid state tends to recover activity rapidly by rehydration. The physical and chemical properties and physiological activities of drugs can remain the same during this process. In the present study, the lyophilized form of liposomes prepared by freeze-drying showed stable quality characteristics during storage and was conducive to long-term storage.

Currently the standard root filling material is a combination

Currently, the standard root filling material is a combination of sealing cement with a central core material. Although gutta-percha is a widely accepted and used material for root filling, its ability to fully entomb the remaining bacteria and adapt to the irregularities of the inner wall of the root canal is under question (Sjögren et al., 1997).
It has been shown that a combination of good coronal restoration and poor endodontic treatment results in fewer periapical inflammatory lesions than a combination of poor coronal restoration and good endodontic treatment (Heling et al., 2002), and improper restoration leads to loss of more endodontically treated teeth than actual failure of endodontic therapy (Weine, 1989). In addition, if the obturated root canals are exposed to the oral environment for more than three months, the root canals should be retreated before placement of a permanent coronal restoration (Magura et al., 1991). Temporary restorations can provide a bacterial-free seal for at least three weeks (Beach et al., 1996), but placing a coronal seal immediately after root canal therapy has been suggested (Roghanizad and Jones, 1996).
Fluids travel under the effect of gravity and capillarity, which can affect the penetration of fluids into the capillary lumens. Therefore, saliva may penetrate more rapidly in coronally unsealed mandibular teeth compared to maxillary teeth. This may give the clinician a better indication of whether a treated root canal with no adequate coronal seal for a BMI1 inhibitor of time should undergo retreatment or immediate coronal seal (Swanson and Madison, 1987).

Materials and methods
All procedures performed in this study conformed to protocols reviewed and approved by the Thesis Committee of the Dental School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Fifty freshly extracted single-rooted human premolars were randomly divided into two groups (A and B, 25 canals each). The samples in each group were subdivided into two experimental groups (15 canals each) and two control groups (five positives and five negatives). The teeth were examined under illumination and radiographs were taken to ensure that they were free of any defects, fractures, or anatomic variations, followed by decoronation to a standardized length of 15mm.
The teeth were kept in 100% relative humidity before and during the study. Root canals were prepared by the step-back technique. The apical foramen of each root canal was enlarged with a #40 K-file. The rest of the canal was then cleaned and shaped with a #70 K-file. Approximately 2mL of 5.25% NaOCl was used as an irrigant between each file during cleaning and shaping. The samples in the experimental groups were obturated with gutta-percha and Roth’s sealer (Roth Drug Co., Chicago, IL, USA) using the lateral condensation technique. In the positive control samples, a single cone of gutta-percha and root canal sealer were used to obturate the canals. The first 2mm of the filling material in the coronal portion was removed in order to make a reservoir for saliva. Ten remaining roots were selected as negative controls and filled with a single cone of gutta-percha without any sealer. The entire external surfaces of the roots in the negative controls were coated with two layers of nail varnish (including the apical foramen). The teeth were placed in a moist environment to allow the setting of the sealer. Apart from the negative controls, the teeth were coated with two layers of nail varnish, except for their apical 2mm and their coronal access cavities.
A modified apparatus similar to that used in our previous study (Khayat et al., 1993) was provided and used as follows: A hole was made in the head cap of the bottles by bur, which was smaller in diameter than the Eppendorf test tube. Approximately 2mm of the end of the Eppendorf test tube was cut using a hot cutter. The ends of the Eppendorf test tubes were heated to make them soft and resilient. Then the teeth were quickly put in the tubes and pressed down to fully adapt to the softened walls of the tubes. The gaps between the teeth and the walls of the tube were sealed by another layer of nail varnish and silicone resin glue. Approximately 2–3mm of the apical portion of the teeth was placed out of the tube end. The tubes were pressed into the head cap of the BMI1 inhibitor bottles to fully adapt. All gaps were sealed by silicone resin glue. A hole was made in the cap of the Eppendorf test tube as a route for saliva deposition. The tubes and the head caps were sterilized by ethylene oxide. Brain Heart Infusion broth was prepared and poured into bottles and then autoclaved. Under sterile conditions, the head caps and the Eppendorf test tubes, with teeth inside them, were attached to the bottles. Each bottle’s capacity was 15mL. All the bottles were filled with medium broth in order to cover the apical 2–3mm of the hanged objects. Group A was placed upside down while Group B was placed normally. Fresh saliva was collected every two days from two of the investigators and placed through the hole into the Eppendorf test tubes by a syringe. The samples were kept at room temperature and saliva was refreshed every two days to keep the bacterial population at a natural level. The number of days for the broth to become turbid was recorded as an indicator of entire root canal contamination (Fig. 1). The experimental period was 60days. The configuration and extension of dye was measured by exposing the samples to India ink for 48h. All the teeth were retrieved from the bottles and tubes and washed under tap water before being placed in acetone to remove the nail varnish and rubbed by gauze to fully clean the teeth. The teeth were then cleared according to Tagger’s method (Tagger et al., 1983). The samples were completely demineralized and decalcified in 5% nitric acid for 14days. Then the teeth were immersed in 65% ethyl alcohol for 24h. Then the samples were immersed in 75% ethyl alcohol for 4h, 85% for 4h, and 96% for 24h. The teeth were placed in open air to fully dehydrate. The next step was to immerse them in methyl salicylate. The extent of dye penetration was evaluated under an optical stereomicroscope (20× magnification, Blue Light Industry, La Habra, CA, USA) and photographs were taken by a digital camera (Exwave HAD, Sony, Tokyo, Japan) (Fig. 2). The schematic representation of the apparatus can be seen in Fig. 1. Data were submitted to Student’s t-test for statistical analysis.