Monthly Archives: January 2018

Anastasopoulos et al used data from highway projects

Anastasopoulos et al. [9] used data from 1722 highway projects in Indiana, random-parameter statistical models are estimated to study the factors that contribute to the likelihood of encountering a project time delay and its duration. The model estimation results show that the likelihood and duration of project time delays are significantly influenced by factors such as project cost (contract bid amount), project type, planned project duration, and the likelihood of adverse weather.
Rahsid et al. [50] explored the causes of delay in construction projects. Data on the study variables have been collected through structured questionnaire from 37 construction firms located in Pakistan. Various statistical tools such as reliability test, factor analysis and regression have been applied for data analysis and inference. The results of the study reveal that the factors related to contractor, client, consultant, material and equipment have significant impact on delay in construction project whereas labor and general environment factors found to have no effects on delay. The findings of the study provide significant insights to construction industry so that they guanabenz may formulate strategies in order to avoid delay and its consequences.
Aziz [12] identified relative importance indices and determined the influence ranks of ninety-nine (99) factors causing delay in construction projects in Egypt. It addressed the most significant factors and groups causing delays, especially after Egyptian revolution. The explored factors were classified under the following nine (9) primary classifications: (1) Consultant related delay factors; (2) Contractor related delay factors; (3) Design related delay factors; (4) Equipment related delay factors; (5) External related delay factors; (6) Labor related delay factors; (7) Material related delay factors; (8) Owner related delay factors; and (9) Project related delay factors. To study the effect of participants’ experience on the obtained results, the results were grouped under experience based groups of the participants and professional cadre of respondents. The most and least important factors in groups were achieved through ranking results. Prediction model for estimating actual project duration was developed; a real case study was tested the accuracy of proposed model.
AlSehaimi et al. [7] aimed to demonstrate the root cause of delay in construction which is tended to be descriptive and explanatory, making Apoptosis inadequate for solving persistent managerial problems in construction. It is contended that many problems in construction could be mitigated through alternative research approaches. Such prescriptive research methods can assist in the development and implementation of innovative tools tackling managerial problems of construction, including that of delay.
Ezeldin and Abdel-Ghany [16] focused on the causes of construction delays in the Egyptian construction industry. The first main objective of the research is to identify and rank the major causes of delays for engineering projects. The second main objective is to determine the party responsible for the main causes of delays. The research was conducted in three phases. The first phase included unstructured interviews with practitioners involved in the Egyptian construction industry. The second phase consisted of a survey for a sample of thirty-five (35) professional experts using a customized questionnaire. These experts represented the different parties of the construction industry; namely, the Contractor, the Employer, and the Consultant/ Project Manager. The third phase of the research covered the analysis of the data collected, in order to determine the frequency and ranking of the causes of delays. The analysis of the results also included the party responsible of the different causes. The results revealed that the causes of delays can be grouped into five (5) main categories: (1) Construction related causes; (2) Managerial related causes; (3) Political related causes; (4) Financial related causes; and (5) Technical related causes. The top 12 causes included 3 construction, 7 managerial, 1 political and 1 financial related causes. The contractor and the Employer were found to be responsible each of 5 of the top 12 causes. The remaining two were found to be the responsibility of a third party.

br The presence of PD in the airways of normal

The presence of PD1 in the airways of normal human subjects has been documented in condensates of exhaled breath, with a decrease in PD1 levels below the detection limit in exhaled breath condensates of asthmatic patients during exacerbation of the disease. We found decreased productions of PD1 and 15-HETE, a 15-lipoxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid, by stimulated peripheral blood eosinophils from patients with severe asthma, suggesting an impairment in 15-lipoxygenase activity in severe asthma. In contrast, the similar levels of 5-HETE, a 5-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid, were observed in patients with severe asthma and healthy subjects, indicating a selectively dysregulated enzymatic activity of 15-lipoxygenase (Fig. 2).
Several reports showed decreased biosynthesis or levels of LXA4, a potent anti-inflammatory lipid mediator with suppressive effects on allergic airway inflammation in vivo in BALF, exhaled breath condensate, whole blood, and sputum of severe asthmatics. Bhavsar et al., demonstrated that the alveolar macrophage was one of the specific cell types with impaired LXA4 biosynthetic capacity. Similar defects in LXA4 synthesis were observed in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), asthma exacerbation, and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. Those observations are concordant with our observation of selective dysregulation of PD1 synthesis in human eosinophils, and we propose that impaired fatty PI3K Akt mTOR Compound Library metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of severe asthma. In addition, these observations suggest that dysregulation of a negative feedback system via these pro-resolving molecules might be the underlying pathophysiology in severe asthma. Omega-3 fatty acid supplements might not provide sufficient anti-inflammatory activity because of impaired enzymatic activities in asthma patients. The administration of PD1 or LXA4, or of a molecule that can enhance their synthetic activities, might offer a promising therapeutic strategy for severe asthma.


Conflict of interest

The prevalence of self-reported systemic Hymenoptera sting reactions among adults ranges from 0.5% to 3.3% in the US while European epidemiological studies report the prevalence of systemic reactions between 0.3% and 7.5%. Similarly, the prevalence of large local reactions in the general population ranges from 2.4% to 26.4% in many studies. This wide variation may depend on the different definitions of the large local reactions, the degree of exposure and the study population.
The prevalence of Hymenoptera venom allergy in adults was evaluated in a number of studies conducted in Turkey. In each of these studies, a selected population such as factory workers, beekeepers or hospital patients was used to determine the prevalence of insect allergies in Turkey. However, in developing countries like Turkey there is a need for large population-based studies which report both the results of a questionnaire as well as skin and serological tests that can confirm case histories and evaluate the general prevalence of Hymenoptera allergy.


According to the first questionnaire, a total of 1171 (9.9%; 95%CI: 9.38–10.47%) persons had answered ‘YES’ to the first question related to Hymenoptera stings. The self-reported lifetime prevalence of hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera stings calculated for all age groups and gender is shown in Table 2. It was found as 10% for both men (95% CI: 8.9–10.9) and women (95% CI: 9.3–10.5). The prevalence of systemic and large local reactions and the culprit insects are also shown in Table 3. There was no significant difference between the prevalence of these reactions and the reported culprit insects between the age groups and the two genders.
In the present study, people without nasal allergies, itching dermatitis/urticaria or familial atopy were found to experience more hypersensitivity reactions to Hymenoptera stings. People aged 40 years old and older were also found to be more affected (Table 4). Doctor-diagnosed asthma, food hypersensitivity, exposure to cigarette smoke or household pets did not seem to be influencing factors on hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera stings.

br Epigenetic predictors of allergic disease Despite

Epigenetic predictors of allergic disease
Despite their potential clinical relevance, the interpretation of studies focused on concurrent salubrinal or allergy is problematic because it is impossible to determine whether a given alteration associated with disease is a cause or a consequence of that disease. A study design in which the epigenome is surveyed to discover predictors of disease in early life or even at birth, that is, prior to the emergence of disease symptoms, is therefore preferable whenever feasible. This design is particularly compelling because epidemiologic studies indicate that asthma begins in the pre-school years even when chronic symptoms do not appear until early adulthood.
A recent study relied on a high-coverage platform to search for DNA methylation signatures predictive of childhood asthma in cord blood mononuclear cells from 36 children (18 non-asthmatics, 18 asthmatics by age 2–9 years) enrolled in the Tucson Infant Immune Study, an unselected birth cohort closely monitored for asthma for over a decade. Cord blood cells were found to harbor 589 differentially methylated regions associated with childhood asthma. Network and upstream regulator analysis showed that a subset of these regions mapped to genes that cluster in immunoregulatory and pro-inflammatory pathways. The identification of epigenetic signatures at birth implies that there is an epigenetic component to disease pathogenesis, and suggests that the genes harboring differential methylation contribute to placing the child on a trajectory to disease.
This possibility is supported by another interesting study that examined the methylome of children with or without food sensitization at two time points (birth and 12 months). A supervised learning approach led to the identification of a novel 92-CpG signature in CD4+ T cells that distinguished children who developed clinical food allergy by age 12 months, and was enriched irn genes encoding MAP kinase signaling molecules. Importantly, this signature was stable from birth until 12 months of age, suggesting that the children bearing that signature were on an epigenetic path to disease already at birth.

An integrated approach to the study of asthma epigenetics
Relying on a novel design that integrates epigenomics and transcriptomics with in vitro and ex vivo cellular models, a recent study explored the hypothesis that IL-13, the only Th2 cytokine sufficient to induce experimental asthma and a major player in human asthma, promotes airway disease through epigenetically-mediated events. In particular, this study assessed whether IL-13 exposure alters DNA methylation patterns in the airways, targets specific epigenetic pathways, and induces long-lasting changes. An initial screening for IL-13-dependent DNA methylation changes was performed in cultured primary airway epithelial cells within a short window after in vitro exposure. Targets were then validated in lung tissues from asthmatics to identify IL-13-responsive CpGs that also differ between asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects. Importantly, this epigenetic signature was characterized with respect to the transcript abundance of nearby genes.
This integrated approach proved quite effective. Epigenetic modifications at thousands of CpG sites were found to occur after a single 24 h in vitro exposure to IL-13. Interestingly, IL-13-responsive CpG sites were enriched near genes that have been previously associated with asthma. Moreover, a significant proportion of this IL-13-mediated epigenetic signature was mirrored in freshly isolated airway epithelial cells of asthmatic compared to non-asthmatic subjects. The authors hypothesize that these epigenetic changes highlight the most long lasting effects of IL-13 exposure. Importantly, this epigenetic signature clustered in pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory pathways, thereby potentially implicating epigenetic modifications in the development and persistence of key features of asthma in the airways.

The levels of IL and IL R mRNA in

The levels of IL-22 and IL-22R1 mRNA in NP were significantly higher and lower, respectively, than those in UT from non-CRS patients. In addition, the NP of asthmatic patients, especially of patients with AIA, showed high expression of IL-22 mRNA and conversely low expression of IL-22R1 mRNA. Since the presence of asthma, especially of AIA, has a negative impact on the pathogenesis of CRSwNP including on postoperative outcomes, the present results suggest that an imbalance in signaling via IL-22 affects the pathogenesis of CRSwNP. Our results in terms of IL-22R1 expression are consistent with those of a previous report by Ramanthan; however, the expression of IL-22 differed between the two studies. This discrepancy may be due to a difference in the control tissue used (uncinate tissue mucosa vs. sinonasal mucosal tissue). The difference in IL-22 mRNA levels in UT between non-CRS patients and CRS patients may be the differences in the numbers and/or activating status of infiltrating inflammatory cells.
Superantigenic enterotoxin and non-superantigenic AT, both of which are major exotoxins released by S. aureus, promote IL-22 production by NP cells. This finding is consistent with that of a previous report, which showed that both SEB and AT induced IL-22 production in PBMCs and in isolated CD4+ T cells. In that report, the AT-induced IL-22 production by PBMCs was significantly enhanced in patients with atopic dermatitis as compared with patients with psoriasis and healthy controls. Our finding that the SEB and AT-induced IL-22 production by NP Madecassoside was significantly higher than that of UT cells was similar to these previous reports, and suggests that enhancement of IL-22 production following exposure to S. aureus exotoxins is induced in inflamed tissues in CRS. This different response between DNPCs and DUTCs may result from different cell activation and/or different cell component. Our preliminary result showed that the proportion (mean ± standard deviation) of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, CD68+ and CD117+, ECP/EPX+ cells in DUTCs was 4.8 ± 2.3%, 8.7 ± 3.8%, 11.8 ± 13.3%, 4.8 ± 3.6%, 0.8 ± 0.4%, and 0.7 ± 0.7%, respectively (n = 3). As compared with our previous data on DNPCs (CD4+ cell: 7.8 ± 11.1%, CD8+ cells: 10.9 ± 10.5%, CD79a+ cells: 8.5 ± 6.8%, CD68+ cells: 8.9 ± 8.2%, CD117+ cells: 8.5 ± 5.3%, ECP/EPX+ cells: 11.7 ± 8.9%), the preliminary result suggests that the proportion of mast cells, eosinophils and CD4+ T cells are lower DUTCs as compared with DNPCs.
One of reasons why there was no significant difference in IL-22 mRNA levels between UT of CRSsNP and NP of CRSwNP whereas IL-22 production in response to SEB or AT was significantly higher in DNPCs than DUTCs may be that exotoxins are not the single elicitor to induce IL-22 production in sinonasal tissues. Other microbes such as fungi and viruses may also induce IL-22 production in CRS. For example, Aspergillus-fumigatus induces IL-22 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
A significant inverse correlation was seen between the degree of eosinophilia in NP and exotoxin-induced IL-22 production by NP cells in patients with CRSwNP. In addition, the complication with asthma had a negative influence on exotoxin-induced IL-22 production Madecassoside by NP cells. This is the first report in which IL-22 was characterized in airways following exposure to S. aureus exotoxins. To date, the effect of IL-22 on eosinophilic airway inflammation in humans remains unclear. Pennino et al. recently showed that the expression of IL-22 in both bronchial mucosa and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was higher in asthmatic patients as compared with healthy controls, and that IL-22 inhibited IFN-γ-mediated expression of MHC class I, MHC class II, ICAM-1, RANTES and IP-10 in bronchial epithelial cells. In a murine model of asthma, delivery of IL-22 suppresses, whereas attenuation of IL-22 enhances eosinophilic inflammation. Together with the finding that exotoxin-induced IL-22 production by DNPCs positively correlated with the FEV1/FVC ratio whereas negatively correlated with postoperative CT score, the present results suggest that impairment in the synthesis of IL-22 following exposure to S. aureus exotoxins regulates the pathophysiology of CRSwNP including eosinophilic inflammation, lower respiratory function and persistent inflammation after surgery. On the other hand, impairment of IL-22 synthesis after exposure with S. aureus exotoxins is not associated with the pathophysiology of CRSsNP since no significant correlations were found between exotoxins-induced IL-22 production by DUTCs and pre-operative CT score, blood eosinophil counts, serum total IgE levels or FEV1/FVC ratio.

So the estimated input voltage

So the estimated input voltage can be obtained as:After that, the estimated input voltage is fed to a zero-crossing detector, and the output of this detector is fed to sine wave look up table which provide a rectified input voltage with a unity amplitude. The proposed control method without using line voltage moexipril is shown in Fig. 3.

Simulation results
The steady-state supply voltage () and the supply current () waveforms are shown in Fig. 4. It is clear that the input current is in phase with the input voltage for boost PFC converter without using line voltage sensor.
The steady-state simulation results of input current and its harmonic spectrum for hysteresis current control method are shown in Figs 5 and 6, respectively. From these results, it is clear that the input current is nearly sinusoidal, and its total harmonic distortion is very low, 3.83%, and the PF is 0.9992.
The rectified voltage (), the rectified current (il), and the reference current () simulation waveforms are shown in Fig. 7. Simulation shows clearly that the rectified current is always very close to the reference current for proposed method.
The load voltage and current waveforms are shown in Fig. 8, which illustrate the very small ripples in both of them that do not have any effect on LEDs operation.
The steady-state supply voltage () and current () waveforms for the proposed method under distorted input voltage are shown in Fig. 9. It is shown that the input current has a sinusoidal waveform and being in phase with the input voltage without using line voltage sensor.
The simulation results of supply voltage and current due to ∓25% step change in the input voltage for the proposed control method, without using line voltage sensor, are shown in Figs. 10 and 11, respectively. It is clear that a sinusoidal input current waveform is maintained under the input voltage changes.
The simulation results of load voltage and current due to ∓25% step change in the input voltage for the proposed method are shown in Figs. 12 and 13, respectively. As seen from these figures, the decrease in the input voltage makes an increase in the line current and vice versa because the power is constant. The change in load voltage and current due to the change in the input voltage has a small duration (about 0.05s), and then, the load voltage and current return to their initial steady-state values. Also, the error in load voltage due to ∓25% step change in input voltage is shown in Fig. 14 which indicates that the proposed PFC control method has a fast response.
The variation in load voltage and current due to negative and positive step change in reference voltage (from 60V to 56V) is shown in Fig. 15 without using line voltage sensor. It is observed that the load current follows the load voltage which follows the desired reference voltage, so the dynamic responses of load voltage and load current for negative and positive step change in reference voltage are fast. Also, the error in load voltage due to negative and positive change in reference voltage (from 60V to 56V) is shown in Fig. 16 which indicates the fast response for the proposed PFC control method under these variations in reference voltage.

Experimental results
With the objective of evaluating the employed topology, a laboratory prototype is setup. The block diagram of the experimental setup and a real view of the complete control system are shown in Figs. 17 and 18, respectively. The main components of the system which labeled as in Fig. 18 are listed in Table 1. The proposed PFC control is done on a digital signal processor board (DS1104) plugged into a computer. The control algorithm is executed by “Matlab/simulink,” and downloaded to the board through host computer. The output of the board is logic signal, which is fed to IGBT through driver and isolation circuits.

In this paper, a new control technique without using line voltage sensor to drive the LEDs current and produces high PF has been presented. This technique is characterized by its simplicity and its reliability to estimate the rectifier voltage compared with other PFC control algorithms. Also, a low cost digital controller can be used. The rectifier voltage is estimated based on sensed inductor current and output voltage. Simulation results showed that the boost PFC converter without using line voltage sensor has a nearly sinusoidal input current with low THD and high PF. Also a nearly sinusoidal input current can be achieved under supply voltage distortion. Also from these results, a better and accurate performance can be achieved due to use a zero-crossing detector. Better dynamic performance for positive and negative change in the input and reference voltages can be achieved. Performance of the proposed control technique was verified experimentally. The experimental results have approved that, the simulation results which have been illustrated by using AC–DC converter with PFC without using line voltage sensor to drive the LED lamps have a nearly sinusoidal input current waveform with low THD and high PF. Besides, a fast dynamic performance for step change in the input and reference voltages can be achieved. So, these experimental results have assured that the proposed control technique is good. There are slight differences between the simulation and experimental results because in simulation results the supply voltage has an ideal sine waveform but, in experimental results supply voltage is not ideal sine waveform. Also, the simulation results are done with sampling time 1e−5s. But, the experimental results are done with dSPACE (DS1104) using sampling frequency 10kHz (sampling time is 1e−4s).

br Results and discussion The percentage of

Results and discussion
The percentage of the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) for the five developed models was calculated to compare the predicted and actual values, both during training and testing and the results are presented in Fig. 6.
Fig. 6 shows that the most efficient network applied was the NN4 which attained a training error value of 3.25% and a testing error values of 3.6%.
Fig. 7 shows the abbreviated notation of the Neural Network NN4 which showed the best performance. The network has an input layer, a hidden layer and an output layer.
The first layer having 6neurons represents the six input material and process parameters selected. The second layer that is the hidden layer includes 10neurons.
Each layer has a weight matrix W, a bias vector, b and an output vector a. In this case, the input vector (P) is a vector of 6 input elements. These inputs are postmultiply the single row, 6-column matrix IW. The weighed values are fed to the summing junction. The neuron has a bias b, which is summed with the weighed inputs to form the net input N1. The bias is much like a weight, except that it fgf receptor inhibitor has a constant input of 1. Finally the net input is passed through the transfer function of the hidden layer which is the Log-Sigmoid Transfer Function. This transfer function is commonly used in the hidden layers of multilayer networks, in part because it is different. Its output range (0–1) is perfect for learning to output Boolean values. After passing the sum to the transfer function, we get the neuron output a1. This vector is in turn taken as an input vector and is multiplied by the column matrix LW and again the weighed values are summed with the bias vector and fed to the summing junction as N2. N2 is passed through the transfer function of the final layer which is the linear transfer function. The choice of the two transfer functions applied was made as a network of two layers, where the first layer is Sigmoid and the second layer is linear can be trained to approximate nearly any function with a finite number of discontinuities arbitrarily well [6].
Fig. 8 depicts the training performance of NN4.


While Edison is credited with the development of the first commercially practical incandescent lamp in order to improve the lifestyle, conventional lighting sources have low efficiency and high energy consumption [1]. One of the key motivations for the recent development in LED lighting is the possibility for increasing efficiency and light output. LEDs are gradually replacing the conventional lighting sources due to their numerous advantages such as [2–4]:
Like conventional PN junction diodes, LEDs are current-dependent devices with their forward voltage drop , depending on the semiconductor compound (their light color) and on the forward biased LED current. Fig. 1 presents the I–V characteristic curves showing the different colors available [5].
LEDs are operated from a low voltage DC supply. In general lighting applications, the LED lamps have to operate from universal AC input, so an AC–DC converter is needed to drive the LED lamp [6]. The efficient drive not only performs unity power factor (PF), but also regulates LED current [7].
The rectifier with filter capacitor is called a conventional AC–DC utility interface. Although a filter capacitor significantly suppresses the ripples from the output voltage, it introduces distortions in the input current and draws current from the supply discontinuously, in short pulses [8]. This introduces several problems including reduction in available power, and the line current becomes non-sinusoidal which increases the total harmonic distortion (THD) and increases losses. This results in a poor power quality, voltage distortion, and poor PF at input ac mains [9–11].
With the development of PFC converters, a sinusoidal line current can be made in phase with the line voltage, and this PFC circuit achieves the requirements of the international harmonic standards. For all lighting products and input power higher than 25W, AC–DC LED drivers must comply with line current harmonic limit set by IEC61000-3-2 class C [12]. Single-stage PFC topologies are the most suitable converters for lighting applications, as PFC and regulator circuits can be merged together. They have high efficiency, a near unity PF, simple control loop, and a small size. In reality, the switching frequency is much higher than the line frequency, and the input AC current waveform is dependent on the type of control being used [13]. The inductor is assumed to be operated in continuous conduction mode (CCM) which is implemented using hysteresis current control method. Operation is possible throughout the line-cycle, so the input current does not has harmonic distortions [14,15].

Subjects were within young age group Advancement

Subjects were within young age group. Advancement in age decreased sperm count and motility. Subjects belonged to a limited geographical area. Fernandez et al. reported quality of semen differed among people from place to place.
More number of days of abstinence deteriorated semen quality. We advised 2–5days abstinence which was necessary to get normal semen and others advised to 2–7days. Studies had shown the difference in quality of semen in daily and in more frequent ejaculation. Frequency of collection was having a significant effect on the composition of semen, with respect to volume, sperm density, seminal plasma constituents and other parameters.
Mode of collection of sample was masturbation. Coitus interruptus was not advised due to chances of losing one or two drops during collection as well as mixing the sample with vaginal secretions and vaginal cells. Total semen was important for the study. Also portion of semen differed in total sperm count and pattern of its motility.
Providing a place next to laboratory for sample collection suited not to damage sperms during the transition ceramide kinase caused by movement as well as change in ceramide kinase temperature and to learn sample from almost collection time. Others also opted for similar way. In this study, liquefaction time was below 15min. Sample collected at different places required minimum 30min to 1h even more time to submit it to laboratory. Sperm motility decreased with slight change in biophysical condition and also deteriorated as time lapsed. We studied sperm motility from 30m after collection (Table 1). Others advised to perform within 1h or 2–4hm.
We provided wide mouthed container for collection which permitted not to lose any drop. Each portion of semen differed. Semen collected in narrow mouthed bottle or test tube may lead to missing a small portion of sample. Well cleaned containers supplied were to exclude unknown chemicals possibly present in containers otherwise used. For the same reason condom was not suitable for collection of sample as which was known to contain chemicals.
Devices for semen collection were designed and discussed by different authors. All type of containers were not suitable for storage of sample used for chemical study.
Subjects collected sample at 8am (±30m). Statistically significant difference in semen quality was observed when samples were collected at different timings of the day. Similar chronobiological changes in body was known. Present study was restricted to one month period. Singh et al. reported seasonal changes in semen electrolytes.
Veena et al. had shown sperm motility was better in dark than in light. Considering this, we maintained constant wave length of light in laboratory and a fixed level of light on stage of microscope throughout our study. The importance of sample and the slide to remain near 37°C while for studying sperm motility was taken care following Freund. The effect of temperature in samples was known since 1962. Semen study was carried out as per WHO. A minimum amount of antibiotics was added to sample as it was known that seminal plasma was not a good medium for sperm survival.
Total semen volume, liquefaction time, pH and test for presence of fructose were within normal range. Total sperm count and percentage of total, PR and NP motility were also within normal range (Table 1).
One of the two aspects of present study was on sperm motility. Percentage of sperm motility was significantly correlated with total sperm count. Results on total sperm motility (%) showed a fall in it from 75.6±3.22 (1/2h) to 9.8±2.77 (24h). Percentage of total motility was decreasing from 1h of study though statistically significant difference (<0.01) was seen from 2h. Significant fall (<0.01) was seen in PR motile sperms from 1h (Table 2). Eliasson and Freund observed a significant correlation between sperm motility and rate of forward progressing motile sperms. Number of NP sperms increased from 1h (<0.05) to 4h. time, compensating the fall in PR (Table 1). Our study was likely to be the first one of its kind to show that total sperm motility was >50% at 8h. after ejaculation (Table 1 and Fig. 1). Normally, the overall motility reached a minimum of 60 percentage after 2–3h of ejaculation. A significant decrease in sperm motility over 2–4h period indicated a serious problem even if the sperm count and original motility were good. One reason for decrease in sperm motility was due to the change in organic and inorganic elements. Sperm motility inhibitory factors present in semen were also responsible which were removed from semen after its deposition in vagina.

Generally some researchers had shown that

Generally, some researchers had shown that exercise training can cause to promote inflammatory markers. The effect of exercise training on systemic c14ɑ demethylase is controversy. Some studies have shown that exercise training can reduce inflammatory cytokines, whereas other studies couldn’t discover such results. For example, effects of exercise training on IL-6 have been examined. After training program Donges et al defects significant changes in this cytokine, but Nicklas et al. didn’t see significant differences compared to before training. Another study also had shown that 12week walking program didn’t changed inflammatory cytokines. Then, to determine the effect of physical activity on inflammatory cytokines more studies well be done. There is no study about the effect of various training methods (endurance, resistance and concurrent) on inflammatory cytokines especially in overweight men. Then, the aim of present study was to determine the effect of endurance, resistance and concurrent (endurance–resistance) training on pre-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in overweight men.

Material and method

Data analysis
The data are presented as mean±SD. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate mean and standard deviation of descriptive variables. Normality of distribution was tested with Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Leven’s test was applied to survey the homogeneous variances of variable distribution. Data were analyzed for main effects using a two-way ANOVA for repeated measures. All data analyses were done via SPSS16 for windows and Microsoft Excel 2007.

After training significant differences were found between groups only in case of IL-6 (F=3.670, P=0.020). Bonferroni Post Hog test showed that endurance training group had a higher significant difference with resistance training. In this case endurance group experienced the most reduction in serum IL-6 (−0.8pg/ml). There wasn’t a significant difference in case of IL-1β and TNF-α. Within group comparisons (by student t test) result was depicted in Fig. 1(A–C).

Several studies were exerted close relationship between exercise and concentration of circulate cytokines. In human, it was shown that concentration of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and INF-γ increased in response to acute exposure to exercise. Some researchers found that inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1β and TNF-α) doesn’t increase with exercise, whereas they can cause to increase blood levels of anti-inflammatory and cytokine inhibitors such as IL-1ra, IL-10 and sTNF-R. This fact shows that exercise is impressive of anti-inflammatory cytokine environment.
While having a close relationship with IL-1β and TNF-α, IL-6 isn’t an inflammatory cytokine itself. Starkie et al. had showed that IL-6 can inhibit endotoxemia due to increasing plasma concentration of TNF-α. Anti-inflammatory effects of IL-6 have been shown by studies in which IL-6 stimulates production of classic anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ra and IL-10. However, exercise can cause to acute increase of IL-6 and release by exercising muscle, long time exercise training decreases circulate level of IL-6 and also by changing expression levels of receptors increases skeletal muscle sensitivity to this cytokine.
Results of our study in case of unseen significant decrease in TNF-α, especially in endurance group, are the same as other foundlings. No significant changes in IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α after endurance training have been observed in untrained women. However, training type and participant of their study were not similar to our study. In the last of their study, they reported that 10week resistance training with moderate to high intensity (1) reduces systemic inflammatory environment and (2) inhibits circulated IL-6 from exercising muscle in inactive women. Same as our study, Ferriera et al. explained that circuit resistance training don’t change serum concentrations of cytokines (IL-1β, IL6, IL8, IL10 and TNF-α).

clofibrate br Concluding remarks Here we

Concluding remarks
Here we studied the stagnation point flow of a second fluid with heat transfer analysis in the presence of variable free stream. The governing nonlinear problem has been computed via homotopy analysis method. The main points of this clofibrate investigation can be summarized as follows:

Squeezing flow between parallel walls accrues in many industrial and biological systems. Moving pistons in engines, hydraulic brakes, chocolate filler and many other devices are based on the principle of flow between contracting domains. To develop these equipment and machines better understanding of such flow models which describe the squeezing flow between parallel walls is always needed. Classical work in this regard can be traced back to Stefan [1], who presented his work on squeezing flow by using lubrication assumption. Later in 1986 Reynolds [2] studied the case for elliptic plates, and Archibald [3] considered the squeezing flow between rectangular plates. After that several researchers have contributed their efforts to make squeezing flow model more understandable [4–8].
Earlier studies on squeezing flows are based on Reynolds equation however the scantiness of Reynolds equation for some cases has been clofibrate shown by Jackson [9]. More flexible and useful similarity transforms are now available due to the efforts of Birkhoff [10], Yang [11] and Wang and Watson [12]. These similarity transforms reduce the Navier–Stokes equation into a fourth order nonlinear ordinary differential equation and have further been used in some other investigations as well [13–17].
Most of the real world problems are inherently in the form of nonlinearities. Over the years much attention has been devoted to develop new efficient analytical techniques that can cope up with such nonlinearities. Several approximation techniques have been developed to fulfill this purpose [18–27]. Nowadays, researchers prefer those techniques which are easy to implement, require less computational work and time to provide reliable results. One of these analytical techniques is Variation of Parameters Method (VPM) [28,29]. Main advantages of VPM are that halophiles does not depend on existence of small or large parameters; it is free from round off errors, calculation of so called Adomian’s polynomials, linearization or discretization. It uses initial conditions that are easier to be implemented and reduces the computational work while still maintaining a higher level of accuracy. One can easily access the recent applications of VPM in different available studies [30–33].

Governing equations
Consider an incompressible flow of a viscous fluid between two parallel plates separated by a distance z=±l(1−αt)1/2=±h(t), where l is the position at time t=0. For α>0 plates are squeezed until they touch each other at t=1/α for α<0 plates are separated. Let u, v and w be the velocity components in x, y and z directions respectively, shown in Fig. 1. Using transform introduced by Wang [13] for a two-dimensional flow:where, Substituting, Eqs. (1)–(3) in unsteady two-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations yield a non-linear ordinary differential equation of same form as discussed by [17],where S=αl2/2ν is the non-dimensional Squeeze number, and ν is the kinematic viscosity. Boundary conditions for the problem are such that on plates the lateral velocities are zero and normal velocity is equal to velocity of the plate, that is Similarly for the axisymmetric case, transforms introduced by Wang [13] are Using Eqs. (6)–(8) in unsteady axisymmetric Navier–Stokes equations we get a nonlinear ordinary differential equation of the form Thus, we have to solve non-linear ordinary differential equation of the formsubject to the boundary conditions given in Eq. (5). In Eq. (10), β=0 corresponds to axisymmetric flow while β=1 gives two-dimensional case.
Solution procedure
Following the standard procedure proposed for VPM [28–33], we can write Eq. (10) as

retinoid x receptor The time series of the flow

The time series of the flow velocity on the magnetic field is shown in Fig. 4. An applied magnetic field tends to decelerates oscillating phase velocity in the domain away from the plate. As expected, with increasing the values of , the amplitude of the flow decreases due to the fact that the magnetic field provides a resistance force to the flow. Fig. 5 display the time series of the flow velocity for different distances from the plate. As can be seen, the velocity amplitude decreases rapidly with the increase of the distance from the plate while the flow of the third grade fluid oscillates in the whole domain approximately in phase with the driving phase movement. The effects of material parameters γand in the presence of wall retinoid x receptor and magnetic field are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. As noted, the material parameters γand have opposite behavior of the velocity field. We observe that the amplitude of the flow velocity increases for large values of γwhereas it decreases for increasing .
Fig. 8 illustrates the influences of porosity of the porous medium on the oscillating frequency of velocity profiles for fixed magnetic parameter and time when wall transpiration shows injection. It is observed that the horizontal velocity increases with an increase in porosity parameter for both types of oscillations. A similar behavior was also expected because an increase in the permeability of the porous medium reduces the drag force, which tends to enhance the magnitude of the horizontal velocity. Thus, increasing the permeability parameter of the porous medium yields an effect opposite to that of the magnetic parameter M.
The steady-state solution given by Eq. (56), is compared with time-dependent transient part Eqs. (28) and (29), for different values of time t in Fig. 9. It is seen from this figure that time dependent transient velocity decreases with time and ultimately reaches its steady-state value. As noted, the solution for time-dependent transient problem is in excellent agreement with the steady-state analytical solution (new modified homotopy perturbation method) at large value of time and choice of material parameter . Fig. 10 presents the steady-state profile for different values of . It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing . Clearly, rise in parameter boosts the velocity profiles. This is because of the proven fact that rise in parameter matches the growing in wall velocity differences for infinite plate.

Conclusion remark
Analytical solutions are obtained for the time-dependent transient and steady-state flow induced by a periodically oscillating two dimensional infinite transpiration wall with uniform magnetic field, located in a porous medium. The nonlinear steady-state equations are solved analytically using a new modified homotopy perturbation method and the transient equations are solved using symmetry reductions technique. Results for the time series of the flow velocity for transient velocity and profiles for steady-state are presented in graphical form and discussed. It is found that exact solution for transient problem is in excellent agreement with the steady-state analytical solution at large value of time. Also, time required to reach steady state can be achieved for the choice of the material parameters .

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support received from the Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) GIPS/1157.

The flow problem in porous tubes/channels has been receiving attention of researchers in recent years because of its various applications in biomedical engineering, for example in the dialysis of blood in artificial kidney, in the flow of blood through capillaries, in the flow in oxygenators, as well as in many other engineering areas such as in the design of filters and the porous pipes, in transpiration cooling boundary layer control and in the studies of gaseous diffusion problems. In boundary layer control, the decelerated fluid particles in the boundary layer are removed through slits in the wall into the interior of the body. Separation can be prevented through sufficiently strong suction or by supplying additional energy to the fluid particles which are being retarded in the boundary layer. Also in separating from by gaseous diffusion, the uranium is first converted to the gas . By pressure gradient, the gas is then forced through a porous wall. The difference in the molecular weights causes differences in the rates of diffusion through the porous material. Furthermore, blowing is used to add reactants, prevent corrosion and reduce drag. Also, suction is helpful to remove reactants in chemical processes. Several studies have been carried out by previous authors for the flow of a Newtonian fluid in a porous channel.