Table showed the means of bacterial

Table 5 showed the means of bacterial content under the effects of the interaction between irrigation systems and wastewater quality. This table was provided due to the existence of interaction effect between irrigation systems and wastewater quality. The impact of interaction occurs only in the total bacteria count of the second season and in the total streptococcus of the first season. Except total bacteria count, there is always a high reduction in bacteria count under the subsurface irrigation system compared to surface irrigation system. This kind of results was expected simply because of the plant exposure to irrigation water. Moreover, the reduction in bacterial count was clear in the second growing season. This reduction may be justified by the climatic variations between the two seasons as well as the application of irrigation water. In fact, there is nothing specific about total bacteria count; however, its deviated behavior can be contributed to the fact that the surrounding environment may host hundreds of bacteria species. The obtained results are partially substantiated the unrestricted wastewater reuse and suggest the need for more studies on crop contamination caused by climatic conditions. In contrast, Tyrrel et al. (2004) reported that concerns may be expressed to salad vegetables, which may become contaminated with pathogens as a result of crop irrigation using poor quality water sources and there are fears that entacapone may be put at risk if irrigation water quality is not controlled. To increase product quality and to protect consumer confidence, alternative and potentially more expensive water sources, e.g. public mains supply can be used.
Table 6 showed the analysis of variance of four bacterial contents under the effects of irrigation systems, wastewater quality and their interaction in both seasons 2011 and 2012. Results indicated that the effect of irrigation systems was not significant in all investigated categories except total bacteria count where both seasons were altered at a confidence of more than 95%. The total bacterial count was also affected by wastewater quality in the second season only while the impact on all other categories was not significant. As the interaction between irrigation systems and wastewater qualities is concerned, a significant effect was obtained on both total bacteria count and total streptococcus while other categories were not affected. In a similar experiment, lettuces and radishes were grown under drip and furrow techniques and irrigated with waste stabilization pond effluent and with effluent diluted with clean water, crop contamination levels of E. coli were 103–104 cell/100g (fresh weight) for radishes and lettuces respectively, but salmonellae were always absent (Bastos and Mara, 1995). However, after rainfall event, salmonellae were isolated from lettuce surfaces and numbers of E. coli increased.
The observed and fitted spatial distributions of bacteria retained in the columns are shown in Fig. 1. The retention profile is plotted as normalized concentration Nc=No/Nt (number of bacteria recovered in the soil, No, divided by the total number of bacteria injected into the column, Nt) per gram of dry soil as a function of distance (D) from the column inlet. Most of the cells were retained close to the soil column inlet, and the rate of deposition decreased with depth. A logarithmic function has been fitted to the observed data. Hence an exponential relationship between Nc and D was found as: with a coefficient of determination, R2=0.964.
About 65% (from the total count in the column) of the bacteria was retained in the top 10cm of the soil column. However the total retained count in the soil column was 68% compared to outflow of 24%. These observations can be attributed to bacteria straining. Some researchers have recognized straining as a potentially important mechanism for bacteria deposition (Bradford et al., 2004; Gargiulo et al., 2008; Firouzi et al., 2015). Bacteria retention in soils occurs by attachment and straining mechanisms. In many experiments, it has been observed that attachment is an important mechanism influencing bacterial retention in porous media. The straining mechanism involves the physical blocking of movement through pores smaller than the bacteria (Stevik et al., 2004). The above percentages of retained versus outflow are most likely to change significantly if the flow system was under saturated condition. Hence more outflow counts may be detected due to the driving force of soil water potential.

clemastine fumarate In this study multiple logistic regression analysis with fasting glucose

In this study, multiple logistic regression analysis (with fasting clemastine fumarate and HOMA-IR levels as the dependent variables and MAHs exposure, cytokines, and oxidative stress as the independent variables) showed a relationship between MAHs exposure and fasting glucose. From the results above, we can confirm that MAHs exposure increases fasting glucose and IR. This high level of IR in the exposed group is thought to be due to the effect of oxidative stress and changes in physiological levels of cytokines that are generated by unchanged organic solvents and the active metabolic intermediate produced during glucose metabolism and degradation (Fig. 2).

Conflict of Interest


Two very different events occurred in Europe in June 2011, but both shared a goal of preventing work-related illness, disease, and injury for the approximately 2.5 billion workers that do not have access to occupational safety, health, and hygiene (OSHH) professionals. These two meetings were the Planning Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Network of Collaborating Centers for Occupational Health (WHOCC) in Oslo, Norway, and the European Union (EU) Conference “Perspectives in Control Banding” sponsored by the Federal Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Bundesanstalt fürArbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, BAuA) in Dortmund, Germany. A topic in common was Control Banding (CB), a simplified process for controlling worker exposures and achieving primary prevention. The essence of how this topic unites these two events can be seen within CB research occurring in Southern India [1]. This article from India describes activities that sought to implement and evaluate CB action-oriented toolkits in a region where exposure prevention is most needed, addressing needs in the WHOCC Workplan’s Priority 2.1: to develop, implement, adapt and evaluate practical risk assessment and management approaches. The value of these approaches was discussed in Oslo and Workshop 3 in Dortmund. Our article seeks a bold and more global objective, the assistance of you, the reader, in achieving the authors’ goal.

Existing Toolkits and Evaluations
Your assistance will be necessary for expanding the use and evaluation of CB toolkits, therefore a brief discussion is necessary. For generic chemicals, there are a number of existing toolkits eccrine glands are addressed in the WHOCC in Occupational Health Global Workplan for 2009-2012 (weblinks for all toolkits are below in Internet Resources):
CB Toolkits have also been developed for nanomaterials: the CB Nanotool (USA) [5,6,11] and Stoffenmanager Nano with versions in Dutch, English and Finnish (end 2011).
This non-exhaustive list of existing toolkits might be confusing for stakeholders in answering the questions: which tool to adopt and should the tool be adapted for any specific needs? However, the bottom line reflects only one important issue for toolkit users: how to arrive at a controlled use of chemicals. In order to help stakeholders/users make a decision on “which tool is best fitted for my exposure scenario”, a kind of consumer guide might help. A consumer guide ideally should compare all currently available tools based on a defined set of criteria for comparison. The backbone for such a comparison in the consumer guide should be based on two principles:
To elucidate, four examples of operational analyses will be presented. The first example is from an International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) newsletter [1] where three different toolkits were evaluated in Southern India. The authors concluded that “as could be expected, no one toolkit can provide solutions for all types of work settings and exposures, especially in complex and resource limited work environments prevalent in developing countries. In view of the resources needed for traditional exposure assessments, such (CB toolkit) approaches may be the only kind feasible for risk management. The lack of endorsement (also noted by the authors) for such toolkits by local regulation is perhaps a bigger challenge and likely to be the single largest obstacle for wider adoption of such approaches by local industry.”

kinesin spindle protein br Conclusion The theoretical framework and

The theoretical framework and epidemiological study will contribute to understanding the complex etiology of obesity and establishing effective intervention programs for obesity in firefighters as a part of firefighter WEFIT programs. In addition, this kinesin spindle protein study will facilitate future studies on the relationships between work, health behaviors, and CVD risk in firefighters by developing a firefighter work and health questionnaire utilizing a PAR approach. The methodological investigation of BMI and skinfold body fat % in firefighters will contribute to making guidelines for medical surveillance of obesity in firefighters [12]. We will work towards building a collaborative task force with OCFA firefighters to 1) participate in the development and validation of the comprehensive work and health questionnaire and 2) plan future interventions to reduce obesity and CVD risk factors based on the findings of the cross-sectional study.

Conflict of Interest


The incidence of sickness absence is high at workplaces with poor physical working conditions [1, 2]. The effect of a heavy physical workload is especially strong in combination with poor psychosocial conditions, such as low job control [3]. Research has also shown that many features of psychosocial working conditions (decision authority, adjustment latitude, job control, job complexity, supervisors’ support and unfairness) are related to sickness absence [4-14].
Vahtera et al. [15] found that negative changes in the psychosocial work environment increased sickness absence and concluded that favorable changes in job control, job demands and social support at work might reduce the risk of sickness absence. Head et al. [16] reported that adverse changes in the psychosocial work environment predicted the incidence of long (> 7 days) but not short (≤ 7 days) spells of sickness absence; if the decision latitude or work demands increased, then the risk for long spells increased, whereas an increase in social support at work decreased the risk. By contrast, to the best our knowledge, there are no similar studies relating changes in physical working conditions to sickness absence.
The present study was conducted in a food industry company. This industry is known for its demanding physical conditions due to the way in which production is organized (assembly-line work, repetitive and monotonous movements, hectic pace of work) and the physiological workload (much standing, bending, carrying or lifting of heavy loads) [17, 18]. The work also includes high environmental exposure (heat, cold, draught, humidity, dust, odors).
The impacts of the working conditions depend on age [19]. Work ability also decreases with age [20, 21]. There are, however, no studies relating age to the association between changes in working conditions and sickness absence. Nevertheless, Papovaviruses is known that short spells of absence are more common in young workers, while older ones have more long spells [22-24], and that sickness absence days also commonly increase with age [25].

Materials and Methods
The study was carried out in a Finnish Food Industry Company employing about 2,000 people [26]. Survey questionnaires on physical and psychosocial working conditions, health and work ability were distributed to all employees in February 2005 and again in February 2009. The employees completed the questionnaires during working hours. Responses given in the beginning of the year clearly reflect past experiences (i.e., the conditions during previous year) of the employees rather than their expectations regarding future conditions. Sickness absence data for the years 2004 and 2008 were therefore used in determining whether changes in the working conditions are accompanied by changes in sickness absence.

The data for all employees (Table 1) show that sickness absence increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 2004 to 2008. The psychosocial working conditions improved on all indicators. Biomechanical exposure decreased with regard to repetitive and monotonous movements and poor working postures, and decreases in environmental exposure indicators were observed for draught, noise and cold working conditions.

Un acercamiento al patr n regional de expansi

Un acercamiento al patrón regional de expansión
Contamos con algunos elementos que nos permiten realizar ciertas consideraciones. Benavides (2008:194-195) afirma que la epidemia inició en Córdoba en marzo de 1762; sin embargo, según los informes consultados, comienza en julio de ese año en Axocuapan, Coscomatepec, San Antonio Huatusco y Tetitlán, y no es hasta octubre de 1762 cuando llega nmda receptor Totutla (véase la figura 2). Desafortunadamente, no contamos con las fechas del inicio en el resto de los pueblos. La expansión se muestra hacia el este y parece haber transcurrido demasiado tiempo entre su inicio en Córdoba y su llegada a Totutla (siete meses). Empero, no contamos con datos suficientes para una apreciación precisa.
En cuanto a la epidemia de viruela, inicia en Ixhuatlán en marzo de 1761, en junio ya se encontraba en Alpatláhuac y Coscomatepec; para julio estaba Tomatlán y Chocamán. En Atzacan y San Juan de Punta apareció en 1762; se extendió a todos los pueblos de la jurisdicción en fechas que no se precisan, pero hay que señalar que el pueblo de San Jerónimo Zentla no padeció viruela (AGN, 1763 foja 258r).

Un acercamiento demográfico
Los documentos dan cuenta de 2,291 fallecimientos entre los pueblos indios de la Jurisdicción de la Villa de Córdoba como resultado de dos epidemias consecutivas, de viruela y matlazahuatl. Si tomamos como referencia los datos de Villaseñor (cuadro 1), observamos que habría aproximadamente un muerto por familia, sin considerar el número de enfermos. El embate fue grave si tomamos en cuenta los cálculos de Gerhard de que cada familia de indios, mestizos y mulatos podría multiplicarse por cinco, aunque los cálculos de Aguirre Beltrán son más conservadores, ya que consideran cuatro miembros por familia (Castro Aranda, 2010: 47 y 54). Solo como aproximación, podríamos tomar los datos de ambos autores: la propuesta Gerhard nos daría un porcentaje de muertos del 18.99% y la de Aguirre Beltrán del 23.74%; en ambos casos se trataría de cifras significativas.

Consideraciones finales
El estudio basado en las variables climáticas dio datos relevantes en torno a la propagación del matlazahuatl en el periodo que nos ocupa (gráfica 1), pues notamos que en los pueblos ubicados más nmda receptor al oriente —San Jerónimo Zentla, San Juan de la Punta y Santiago Huatusco— y con temperatura promedio anual de 25° o más, no hubo epidemia. Así, el clima se revela como un factor importante, lo que ya había sido apuntado por Molina (2005:101): «…al parecer un clima caliente extremadamente seco inhibe su pleno desarrollo [pulgas y piojos]», aunque tampoco para la autora resulta determinante. Por ello, es importante mencionar que el brote de matlazahuatl de 1736-1739 sí fue padecido por la población de Zentla (Aguirre Beltrán, 1991:139), lo que refrenda que el clima no es el único factor que influye en la propagación de la epidemia. Por otro lado, el hecho de que en San Jerónimo Zentla no hubiera contagio no parece haber contribuido a Late period of phage development mantener, a largo plazo, un núcleo poblacional numéricamente importante.
Es el mismo caso de Santiago Huatusco, que dejó de ser la cabecera del actual municipio de Carrillo Puerto; en los documentos (AGN, 1763 foja 280r) se expresa que en esa localidad murieron por la viruela 7 tributarios y medio, de un total de 31 fallecidos (cuadro 1), quedando un padrón de apenas 81 y medio. Ya Segura (1831:131) refiere que Santiago Huatusco «contiene muchas y dilatadas tierras, superiores tanto para labor como para ganados. Están todas casi incultas por la falta de brazos…». Para finalizar, señalaremos que las poblaciones mencionadas cuentan con importantes sitios arqueológicos apenas explorados.
En torno a San Juan de la Punta, hoy Cuitláhuac, se reporta un censo con la escasísima cantidad de nueve tributarios y 5 medios tributarios (AGN, 1763 foja 282r), además de 16 fallecidos por viruela (cuadro 1): en ese mismo sentido, Segura (1831:116) comenta: «Verdaderamente la Punta es pueblo solo en el nombre, y lo mismo San Lorenzo, pues ambos casi han desaparecido». Resulta paradójico pues, a diferencia de Zentla y Santiago Huatusco, Cuitláhuac es hoy una pujante ciudad en la que las huellas de la epidemia y el antiguo poblado quedaron muy atrás, lo que nos lleva a considerar que hubo otros factores, aún por ser investigados, que incidieron en el importante crecimiento poblacional.

The benefit of organ sparing techniques for maintaining

The benefit of organ-sparing techniques for maintaining sexual function has illuminated the need for studying sexual outcomes in penile carcinoma. In the past decade, glansectomy, in combination with glans reconstruction, has been evaluated as an alternative to partial penectomy, but still with large differences in the use of validated tools and results of sexual outcomes [11,30,31,34]. Nevertheless, when summarizing these findings, and not surprisingly, there is more to gain in sexual well-being for both patients and partners when there is a possibility of penile-preserving treatment. The partner perspective in penile carcinoma has not, as far as we know, been studied. In our earlier retrospective study, we described the partner perspective from point of view of the patients. This approach has also been used by Gulino et al. who found that 6 months after glans reconstruction, patients rated the relationships with partner and family as being as good as before the debut of the disease [11].


Male circumcision is one of the most ancient and most common surgical procedures [1]. Although the practice of circumcision is often a topic of debate, scientific evidence documenting the health benefits and low risks has led to several evidence-based statements by professional bodies advocating male circumcision [2-4].
The positive medical benefits of circumcision need to be considered in the context of any potential adverse effects on reproductive potential and sexual satisfaction. In the past, attention was focused on the sensitivity of the glans penis. It was generally held as axiomatic that glans exposure would reduce the sensitivity of the organ and thereby prolong intercourse, to the greater satisfaction of the female partner. Whether this led to greater satisfaction for the man, by prolonging intercourse, or less satisfaction because of reduced sensitivity, was a stavudine for debate [5]. Later, the possibility was raised that the prepuce itself might function in sexual response [6].
This question has been addressed in a number of ways. First, population surveys of sexual function, practices, and satisfaction have been undertaken involving thousands of participants in the United States [7] and Australia [8]. Survey studies can provide only indirect information about sexual sensitivity and satisfaction. Second, many studies (often prompted by the expansion of male circumcision programs in Africa to combat HIV) have addressed the sexual function and satisfaction of men circumcised after commencement of sexual activity. One study involved a randomized controlled trial of men well matched for sexual activities in which men in the circumcised and uncircumcised arms of the trial were followed for 24 months [9]. These surveys provide an opportunity (not always taken) to ask about sexual sensation before and after circumcision. Third, many studies, beginning with Masters and Johnson [10], have attempted to measure penile sensitivity of circumcised and uncircumcised men via a range of techniques (see recent review: [11]). Fourth, several studies have examined the histology of the prepuce and penis sometimes with a view to evaluating the effect of circumcision.


Retrieval of References
A systematic literature review was undertaken through February 2015 by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases using keywords shown in Table 1. The searches retrieved 26 references [12-37]. We reviewed the abstracts, then the text of appropriate articles. Articles desmosome did not contain original data or histological or anatomical information relevant to human penile sensory sensation were not included in our evaluation. The searches led to the identification of 30 unique articles.
A further eight relevant publications were identified from the reference lists of the articles retrieved: [38-45]. The authors\’ own reference collections were also examined, finding three further publications on structural aspects: [46-48]. Major textbooks of medical histology revealed relevant structural information in Rhodin [49]. Anatomical and histological studies prior to 1930 have been excluded—they are adequately reviewed by Winkelmann [26].

Only one RCT Li et

Only one RCT, Li et al. [19], included a psychotherapeutic approach, comparing chlorpromazine plus the stop‐start technique plus psychotherapy against chlorpromazine alone. The effectiveness of psychotherapy in this hippo signaling pathway study was unclear due to the combined intervention and the use of an active control. All remaining RCTs focused on physical techniques as outlined above. Indeed, current PE guidelines note that the majority of psychotherapy studies are uncontrolled and nonblinded [1]. Therefore, there remains a need for well‐conducted RCTs of psychotherapeutic approaches to PE.
The majority of RCTs included an assessment of either IELT or another measure of ejaculatory latency, though the method of IELT measurement (e.g., via stopwatch) was not always reported. Many RCTs also reported other outcomes such as ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and anxiety, though various different measures were used to assess these, and data were not always clearly reported. It is important that clinical studies aim to assess non‐IELT aspects of PE, as highlighted in the recently updated ISSM definition of PE, which includes inability to delay ejaculation and negative personal consequences in addition to reduced latency time [1].
In comparison with a pharmacological treatment, most BTs require a willingness of the man and his partner to engage with the therapy and practice the relevant techniques. The suitability of a BT is likely to depend on individual patient (and partner) preference; some people may prefer a behavioral option, whereas others may prefer a pharmacological approach. Combinations of medical and psychological approaches may be useful where there is a clear psychosocial or relationship issue [1].




Female cancer‐related sexual issues are common and are often associated with the emotional and physical side effects of treatment, as well as with the cancer diagnosis itself [1–3]. Unlike many other cancer‐related side effects, female sexual issues (such as dyspareunia, poor body image, and relationship distress) can be long lasting and can worsen with time [4,5]. Many women with cancer value sexuality as an important aspect of quality of life and are interested in cancer‐related sexual health information, in both the diagnosis/treatment phase and surveillance phase [6–8]. Despite these findings, female cancer‐related sexual issues remain frequently under‐addressed [6–8].
As a result, the Institute of Medicine (IOM), along with many oncology and sexual health organizations, have recommended addressing sexual function as part of standard survivorship care [9–14]. These recommendations are pertinent to both oncology and sexual health providers, given the American College of Surgeons (ACS) Commission on Cancer requirement for all ACS‐accredited cancer facilities to phase in provision of formal Survivorship Care Plans to patients beginning in 2015 [15].
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recently published recommendations for achieving high quality cancer survivorship care (2013), which call for an expansion of oncology provider education promoting interdisciplinary, shared care models of survivorship care delivery, as well as additional research on identifying and building strategies to address knowledge gaps in health related outcomes [16]. This is particularly relevant for female cancer‐related sexual issues, as research has focused on delineating sexual issues and identifying provider barriers, such as discomfort with discussion, inadequate training, and lack of available resources [17–21]. Unfortunately, there is little evidence‐based guidance for reducing these barriers and educating oncology providers in a way electron improves delivery of sexual health care for women with cancer. The sparse data on female sexual health training for oncology providers are heterogeneous in design, do not include education for attending physicians, and lack behavioral outcome measures [22–25].

br Introduction Our perception not only is determined by the

Our perception not only is determined by the sensory input we receive, but is strongly shaped by previous experience. In line with this, perception can be described in the framework of predictive coding as an inferential process by which incoming information is combined with endogenous predictions (Friston, 2005; Kersten et al., 2004; Mumford, 1992). Such predictions are generated from an internal model that represents beliefs about the world built up by past experience, and these predictions enable stable and unequivocal percepts despite the noisiness and ambiguity of sensory signals. An important characteristic of such predictive coding is that it is adaptive: whenever a prediction is violated by incoming sensory information, a prediction error signal initiates learning by an update of the internal model resulting in adjusted beliefs about the world. An alteration in the brain\’s predictive machinery has been suggested to lie at the core of delusion formation in schizophrenia. In this context, delusions are explained by an altered integration of predictions with sensory signals, whereby the concomitant aberrant prediction error signal is assumed to drive erroneous updates of the internal world model resulting in maladaptive predictions and unfounded beliefs, i.e. delusions (Corlett et al., 2010; Fletcher and Frith, 2009; Adams et al., 2013). At the experiential level, the weakened influence of predictions in perceptual inference is thought to have the effect that expected events are perceived as if they were unpredicted and surprising (Hemsley, 2005), and the search for a cognitive explanation for this perceived aberrant salience is then assumed to result in the formation of delusions (Heinz, 2002; Kapur, 2003).
A powerful tool for probing the brain\’s predictive mechanisms and their alterations in delusions is ambiguous stimuli, which are compatible with two different, mutually exclusive perceptual interpretations. Prolonged viewing of such stimuli results in bistable perception fluctuating spontaneously between the two possible interpretations (Leopold and Logothetis, 1999; Sterzer et al., 2009). Such bistable perception has been conceptualized as an ongoing BX795 between two predictions that can never fully account for all the visual information in the ambiguous stimulus, with the effect that increasing prediction error signals trigger switches between the two interpretations (Clark, 2013; Hohwy et al., 2008). The ambiguity inherent in ambiguous stimuli maximizes the need for perceptual inference, and, hence, the potential influence of endogenous predictions. A simple and efficient way to experimentally induce such predictions is the intermittent presentation of an ambiguous stimulus: when an ambiguous stimulus is temporarily removed from view, the percept after re-onset of the stimulus strongly tends to be the same as the last percept before stimulus removal, resulting in a substantial reduction of perceptual fluctuations (Leopold et al., 2002; Orbach et al., 1963). This stabilization of perception during the intermittent presentation of an ambiguous stimulus can be conceptualized as a special case of perceptual priming, which is thought to be mediated by the incorporation of predictions based on previous perceptual outcomes (Friston, 2005). Such stabilizing predictions are thought to be implemented at low levels of the cortical hierarchy, within sensory cortices (Pearson and Brascamp, 2008; Sterzer and Rees, 2008). Accordingly, attenuated sensory predictions, as suggested to underlie the formation of delusions, would translate into a decreased tendency to percept stabilization. In line with this, we previously found a negative correlation between the propensity towards delusional ideation and the tendency towards percept stabilization in a cohort of healthy individuals (Schmack et al., 2013). Here we asked whether the observed alteration of perceptual inference might also account for delusions of clinical relevance. To this end we empirically tested whether a weakened influence of sensory predictions in perceptual inference is related to delusions in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls participated in a visual perception experiment with intermittent presentation of an ambiguous stimulus. In addition, they underwent a specific quantitative assessment of delusional ideation. We hypothesized that the tendency towards percept stabilization (1) is lower in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls, and, (2) is negatively correlated with the degree of delusional ideation.

br Materials and methods br Results and discussion br

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

This study demonstrated the worth of Taguchi orthogonal array design combined with a response surface methodological approach for the development of a robust stability indicating HPLC method for the GLP. This approach exposed the two-way interactions between factors, which were impossible to detect with the Taguchi design alone. The critical factors that are significantly (p<0.05) affecting the studied responses were identified and controlled to achieve the predetermined method goal. The best method having improved system suitability parameters was employed in the routine assay of GLP from an S-SNEDDS formulation. Lastly, the presented data in the future will help analysts to diagnose any problems along with corrective action, which may come across during the life cycle of the stated stability indicating method, if appliedfor other purposes involving quantitative estimation of glimepiride provided specificity is justified for the intended purpose.

Inflammation is a normal, natural protective and defense mechanism of the organism to tissue injury caused by various factors which include physical trauma, injurious stimuli, chemical action or microbial infections (Ashley et al., 2012). It is a very common symptom of many chronic diseases such as arthritis, osteoarthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic GSK503 which put enormous burden on the economy of the countries. The prevalence of inflammatory diseases is on rise across the world, mostly affecting elderly population (Gautam and Jachak, 2009). Few epidemiological studies conducted elsewhere have also linked inflammation to pathogenesis of stroke, cardiovascular diseases, various types of cancer and to some extent neurodegenerative diseases. Mantovani and Pierotti in 2008 reported that inflammatory reactions and underlying infections are involved in 15–20% of all cancer deaths (Mantovani and Pierotti, 2008).
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly prescribed medicines for the management and treatment of various inflammatory conditions. These drugs interfere with the production of lipid autacoids known as prostaglandins (PGs), which play an important role in eliciting inflammatory reactions and its sign and symptoms (Ricciotti and Fitzgerald, 2011). NSAIDs block the biosynthesis of PGs primarily by inhibiting the arachidonic acid metabolism via inhibition of several enzymes involved in their synthesis including cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX-1 and COX-2) (Tan et al., 1992). Commonly used NSAIDs exhibit higher selectivity toward COX-1, an enzyme that is involved in the cytoprotection of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), than COX-2 which is principally responsible to cause inflammation. A majority of the commonly used NSAIDs are non selective inhibitors of both the isozyme forms of cyclooxygenase and thus are associated with undesirable GI effects such as gastric irritation, ulceration, bleeding and renal disorders (Allison et al., 1992; Agnihotri et al., 2010). In order to overcome GI problems, highly selective COX-2 inhibitors (celecoxib, rofecoxib, etc.) were developed and marketed as gastro-protective NSAIDs (Lanza, 1998). However, long term use of some selective COX-2 inhibitors has shown potential limitations including cardiovascular complications, aggravation of ulcers among high-risk patients, delay in healing process of gastro-duodenal ulcers, prostacyclin deficiency leading to thrombosis and kidney toxicity (Verrico et al., 2003; Buttgereit et al., 2001). Hence, selective COX-2 inhibitors because of their high cost and undesirable side effects are not the ideal candidates for the treatment/management of various chronic inflammatory disorders and therefore, efforts should be made for the development of new orally active, potent, improved and safer NSAIDs with low or no GI side effects.
Imidazolidines (saturated imidazoles), also known as tetrahydroimidazoles are biologically active nitrogen containing heterocyclic moiety which have been reported to shown wide array of significant bioactivities such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, α-adrenergic receptor agonist, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, oral hypoglycemic and anticonvulsant activities (Marki et al., 1984; Sharma and Khan, 2001; Caterina et al., 2008; Saczewski et al., 2009; Neves et al., 2010; Robert et al., 2010). They have also been considered as important scaffolds and intermediates for designing and synthesis of medicinal compounds with potential cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition activity (Patel et al., 2004). Several substituted-imidazolidine derivatives have been shown to be potential anti-edema agents in animal models of inflammation. Khan and Chawla, reported them to be promising group of NSAIDs with potential anti-inflammatory activities (Khan and Chawla, 2002).

br Post mortem Post mortem examination showed

Post mortem
Post-mortem examination showed haemorrhages in the thigh and breast muscles. The lesions in the bursa ranges from flakes of pus to haemorrhages (Khan et al., 1988b). In addition to above said kidneys were also found swollen along with deposition of urates (Khan et al., 2009). It was noted that 20.05% hemorrhages in the bursa and 18.85% were found in thigh muscles. Bursal atrophy was found in 61% where as 11% showed haemorrhages in breast muscles. 89% affected with nephritis and only 4% pictured necroric liver (Sultana et al., 2008).

Initial diagnosis can usually be made based on flock history, clinical signs and PM examinations. However, definitive diagnosis can only be made by the specific detection and/or isolation and characterization of IBDV. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs and postmortem findings first time in Pakistan (Khan et al., 1988a). The level of Abs were calculated. Serum NVP-TNKS656 against infectious bursal disease were detected by IHA (Indirect Hemagglutination) test. It was found that maximum positive sample were between 6 and 8weeks of age and minimum Abs were present in group below 3weeks of age. For the characterization of Pakistan isolates, a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (RT-PCR/RFLP) technique was used. SspI restriction enzyme was used. By this study it was confirmed that vvIBDVstrains were existed in commercial set up. RT-PCR/RFLP is a very useful and rapid method for characterization and identification of existing and evolving strains of IBDV (Zahoor et al., 2011). In this study three immunodetective techniques were compared to assess the best one. For the IBDV detection reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), reverse passive haemagglutination assay (RPHA) and agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) were compared by screening suspected virus in bursa of Fabricius, liver, kidneys, spleen and thymus of chicken. Its noted that RPHA were less time consuming and sensitive ones as compared to AGPT. In field conditions RPHA has given economical results in contrast to other techniques. RT-PCR was found more sensitive than other local available techniques (Mahmood and Siddique, 2006; Ali et al., 2017). A strip was developed in Dot-ELISA for quick diagnosis of multiple pathogens in a single kit during field inspections. This diagnostic tool was successful with little false results but its highly specific, very sensitive and less time consuming for trained field workers (Alam et al., 2012). The performance of DOT-ELISA was weighed with agar gel precipitation test (AGPT). The DOT-ELISA showed better sensitivity than diagnostic AGPT. The other edge of DOT-ELISA was that it has ability to detect lBDV at early stage of infection so it was best low cost screening test (Sultana et al., 1999).

The pathogenic viruses spreads infections in the targeted populations. There is no effective remedy for the viral diseases but by adopting control measures and supportive therapy, the losses can be reduced. Vaccination may not be successful 100% for raising immunity. The multivitamin therapy combined with vaccination showed boosting effects in protection. IBD strain D-78 caused low stress with good protective titre in the birds (Khan et al., 2003). The comparative immunostimulatory studies of two available market products i-e Livol (herbal supplement) and immunotone (selenium and vit E) by ELISA were noted. Livol showed more encouraging results than immunotone to minimize the adverse effect of IBDV vaccine. Different immunogenic products were tried to select the better one available in commercial markets (Arshad et al., 2005; Qayyum et al., 2012; Saleem and Mehmood, 2013; Zahid et al., 2015). It promoted immune status against IBD and result in better feed conversion ratio (FCR) (Mahmood et al., 2014). It was observed that hyperimmunized yolk controlled IBD infection in rural and hybrid birds (Malik et al., 2006). Medicinal plants extracts were used in designed experiments. Immunological and hematological profile of the birds showed that there was significant improve in antibodies titres against IBD. Findings depicts that oral administration enhances immunological profiles (Mushtaq et al., 2012; Muhammad et al., 2017) In this study high molecular mass glycoproteins (HMMGs) derived from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) juice were tried. It was found that it had immunostimulatory response of both cellular and humoral aspects on growth rates in commercial broiler. HMMGs were extracted from sugar cane juice by size exclusion chromatography (Awais et al., 2013; Raziq et al., 2012).

Large quantities of agro industrial

Large quantities of agro-industrial wastes that are produced worldwide often cause environmental and health problems (Garg and Gupta, 2009). In addition, the ever-growing need of cheap nutritious food, and the lack of protein in developing countries led to the development of the mushroom cultivation industry (Sivaprakasam and Kandasawmy, 1981; Levanon et al., 1993; Yildiz et al., 1997; Croan, 2000; Zervakis et al., 2001).
The Oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus is characterized by its rapid growth on agro-wastes such as olive cake, tomato tuff, pine needles, wheat straw, banana leaves (Ananbeh and Almomany, 2005, 2008Al-Momany and Ananbeh, 2011), leaf of hazelnut (Yildiz et al., 1997), cotton waste (Oh et al., 2000), maize stover (Fanadzo et al., 2010), palm oil (Rizki and Tamai, 2011) and other wastes. The individual specimens of the oyster mushroom often grow in layers on top of each other (Hoglov, 1999).
Mushroom production technology is not well-established in Saudi Arabia. Very few studies have been conducted to produce mushrooms and other BGB-324 (Al-Qarawi et al., 2013; Khanaqa, 2006). Different agro wastes are available in huge amount in Saudi Arabia such as windbreak residues, citrus and olive trees pruning, green landscapes, vegetables and fruits, date trees (Sadik et al., 2010), boobialla leaves, sawdust, and wheat straw. Most of these residues are utilized in an inefficient way, but some were successfully used as compost (Al-Barakah et al., 2013; Sadik et al., 2010).
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an important ancient monocotyledonous plant in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is composed of trunk, leaves, seeds, and fruits. Date palm leaves are 100–250cm long and may reach up to 4–7m in length (Al-Gboori and Krepl, 2010). Date palm parts are obligatory by-products of date production and their main use concentrated to improve soil organic content, animal feed, and manifested feedstock such as cellulose and hemicelluloses.
High percentage of cellulose and lignin is found in different parts of the date palms, bases and midribs, leaflets, fruit stalks, and spathe. These parts can be used as a substrate to grow nutritious product with low cost such as oyster mushroom. Moreover, date palm leaves contain minerals such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe (Abo Hassan and Bacha, 1982).
Media made from a mixture of different portions of date palm seeds and leaves were evaluated for cultivating P. ostreatus mycelium (Al-Qarawi et al., 2013). They found that the mycelial growth incubated for eight days was the highest at a mixture of 80% seeds and 20% leaves. Another study was conducted to evaluate two sterilization methods, chemical and heat, of different date palm parts to produce oyster mushroom (Abdulhadi and Hassan, 2013). Their results showed no significant differences in the total mushroom production among the different parts used, and the preference of using heat versus chemical methods in sterilization. Moreover, protein content was found to be the highest in palm leaves compared to other parts tested (Abdulhadi and Hassan, 2013).
The previous mushroom production studies conducted in Saudi Arabia or in Iraq did not test the possibility of mixing the date palm agro wastes with other agro wastes as media to grow mushrooms. The current study hypothesized that using date palm leaves alone or mixed with other agro wastes will not be efficient in producing oyster mushroom. Thus, the objective of this research was to study the efficiency of converting date palm leaf wastes mixed with other agricultural wastes obtainable in KSA into value added product with high protein content by growing the mushroom species P. ostreatus.

Materials and methods


P. ostreatus is an easily cultivable mushroom that colonizes various crop residues as substrates. Pleurotus spp. are able to degrade and convert lignocellulosic compounds into protein-rich biomass (Mamiro and Mamiro, 2011), and help in managing agro-wastes whose disposal has become a problem (Das and Mukherjee, 2007). It demonstrated higher colonization rates, improved earliness, and sporophore yield on different agro wastes compared to other cultivated mushroom genera (Philippoussis et al., 2001). Its cultivation has increased greatly during the last few decades throughout the world (Chang, 1999) due to its ability to adapt varied agro-climatic conditions (Jandaik and Goyal, 1995). In addition to that, P. ostreatus growth on different agricultural wastes can provide more food and decrease different crop residues (Nwokoye et al., 2010).