Introduction Graph theory has been increasingly applied in the analysis

Graph theory has been increasingly applied in the analysis of connectivity in neuroimaging data. Graph-theory-derived centrality measures, especially eigenvector centrality (EVC), can rank the relevance of a node in a complex network (Zuo et al., 2012) in terms of strategic location. This feature is particularly useful for exploring the etiology of mental disorders that are associated with functional alterations at a network rather than a focal level (Fornito et al., 2015; Sporns, 2014; He et al., 2016). However, there is currently a lack of consistent findings from independent large samples in the literature (Horga et al., 2014). In particular, few studies have investigated if central functional Cisplatin cost regions in children and adolescents are replicable across different sites of acquisition (Zuo et al., 2012). In addition, even fewer studies have explored the replicability of associations between network-level disruptions and dimensional psychopathology in childhood.
Previous studies of human structural and functional brain networks have identified a set of highly connected brain regions (i.e., hubs) (Power et al., 2013). These hubs are believed to play a central role in the flow of information throughout the brain, integrating parallel and distributed networks (Gong et al., 2009; Hagmann et al., 2008; Hwang et al., 2013). Structural connectivity studies have shown that hubs are mainly located at integrative cortical areas in adults (Power et al., 2013; Sporns et al., 2007). In the adult brain, functional cortical hubs include the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus, inferior parietal lobule (IPL; particularly the angular gyrus) and medial temporal cortex (Buckner et al., 2009). Moreover, Betzel et al. (2014) have noted that functional hub regions are affected by changes in white matter connections and that the relationship between functional and structural connectivity changes with age.
Two major gaps can be drawn from the current neuroimaging literature of children and adolescents: (i) the replicability across different samples; and (ii) the differential effects of hubs over neurodevelopment. Several resting-state fMRI studies of large samples of children and adolescents have been carried out, but in healthy developing children as opposed to clinical samples (Grayson et al., 2014; Sato et al., 2015a,b; Supekar et al., 2009; Uddin et al., 2011; Hwang et al., 2013). Evidence for a typical developmental trajectory emerged from these studies: large-scale networks apparently shift from a locally segregated to a more distributed and integrated organizational pattern (Fair et al., 2008, 2009, 2007; Fransson et al., 2011; Gao et al., 2009; Supekar et al., 2009). Interestingly, in infants, hubs have been identified in primary sensorimotor regions as opposed to the association cortex, where hubs have been identified in adults (Fransson et al., 2011). Hwang et al. (2013) showed that the connectivity between frontal hubs and other brain regions increases from childhood to adolescence. However, Khundrakpam et al. (2013) described developmental changes in the topological properties of the networks that suggested an organizational shift towards a more random configuration. Moreover, Zuo et al. (2012) demonstrated the test-retest reliability of EVC in functional connectivity networks over a subject age range of 7–85 years old. Therefore, despite the emergence of several brain regions as potential hubs of intrinsic brain connectivity in children, few studies have investigated which regions are most replicable across different samples (Horga et al., 2014). This is a crucial point for progress in biological psychiatry. In addition, many findings from early resting-state fMRI studies were limited by the issue of head micro-motion artifacts (Power et al., 2012). These movement artifacts are also related to age and influence functional connectivity estimates, complicating the interpretation of results.

The treatment of rosacea has been a big challenge

The treatment of rosacea has been a big challenge for both patients and clinicians, mainly due to the lack of approaches targeting pathogenic pathway. Although the pathogenesis of rosacea is unknown, a line of evidence suggests that order TASIN-1 the development of rosacea is driven by a defective permeability barrier. In addition to the induction of pre-inflammatory cytokine releases, barrier disruption increases the epidermal SP activity and LL-37 expression. Epidermal proteases, including kallikrein-related peptidases 5 and 7 (KLK5, KLK7), degrade LL-37 to different active fragments of LL-37, including FA-29. The active forms of LL-37 cause erythema and vasodilatation, as well as cytokine release. Moreover, LL-37 upregulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression. However, activation of PAR-2 by SP also undermined the permeability barrier. The latter could exacerbate rosacea. The clinical evidence that improvement of permeability barrier alone benefits rosacea also supports the pathogenic role of the permeability barrier in rosacea. The putative pathogenic role of the permeability barrier in rosacea and the mechanisms by which tranexamic acid benefits rosacea are illustrated in Figure 6.

This project was supported by the National Natural Science Fund (81201217) and the Beijing Natural Science Fund (7122181).

br Results and discussion Fig

Results and discussion
Fig. 2(a) depicts the computed temperature distribution during FSW of AA2014-T6 using a regular triangular pin. The region heated above 600 K, which is nearly 0.8 times the solidus temperature of the workpiece material, is represented in red color and presumed to be the softened zone to primarily experience the traction by the rotational motion of the tool pin. The size of the high temperature region is wider underneath the shoulder and tends to reduce along the length of the pin in the thickness direction. This can be attributed to higher rate of frictional heat generation along the shoulder-workpiece interface in comparison to the same around the surfaces of the tool pin. The rate of frictional heat generation on the vertical surface of the pin is slightly higher than that AZD-9291 Supplier on the bottom surface due to larger surface area of the former. Similarly, Fig. 2(b)–(d) depict the computed temperature distributions for the regular square, pentagon and hexagon pins, respectively. A comparison of Fig. 2(a)–(d) depicts an increase in the high temperature region, which is above 600 K, in the vicinity of the pin vertical surface with the increase in the number of pin sides that is attributed to the increase in the rate of frictional heat generation along the pin vertical and bottom surfaces.
Fig. 3(a)–(d) depict a comparison between the numerically computed and experimentally measured thermal cycles during FSW of AA2014-T6 using a regular triangular, square, pentagon and hexagon pins, respectively. The increase in the peak temperature from the triangular pin profile towards the hexagon pin profile is attributed to the enhanced rate of frictional heating around the pin vertical and bottom surfaces with the increase in the number of pin sides. Overall, a fair agreement between the computed and corresponding measured thermal cycles can be noted in Fig. 3. The slight deviation between the computed and corresponding measured thermal cycles may be attributed to the neglect of heating due to mechanical deformation and the presumed thermophysical properties of AA2014-T6 (Table 3). Fig. 4 depicts the variation in the computed peak temperature for four different regular polygonal pins. It is noted that the peak temperature increases with the increase in the number of pin sides from the triangular pin to the hexagon pin. Higher number of pin sides increases the overall pin-workpiece contact area, resulting in greater rate of frictional heat generation, in particular, on the pin vertical surfaces, which leads to a higher peak temperature.
Fig. 5(a) and (b) depict a comparison between the analytically estimated and corresponding experimentally measured torques and traverse forces, respectively, for four different regular polygonal pins. The total torque remains nearly unchanged while the traverse force decreases with the increase in the number of sides from the triangular pin to hexagon pin. For a given shoulder diameter and pin circumradius (c), the increase in the number of pin sides reduces the shoulder-workpiece contact area while increases the pin-workpiece contact area, resulting in a nearly steady tool torque. However, the increase in the number of pin side enhances the rate of frictional heat generation and the resulting softening of a greater amount of deformed material around the pin surfaces, leading to the decrease in traverse force. A fair agreement between the computed and corresponding measured torques and traverse forces for various regular polygonal pins can be noted in Fig. 5.
Fig. 6(a) depicts the estimated variations in the components of mechanical stresses (σB, τB, τT and τmax) experienced by FSW tool with triangular pin at different orientations (ξ) during one complete rotation. The values of σB, τB, τT and τmax at 30° are estimated for the regular triangular pin, as indicated in the plot of τmax for clarity. The analytically evaluated values of σB, τB, τT and τmax indicate the apparent trend of the component of stresses during one complete rotation of the tool. Fig. 6(a) shows rhodopsin τT is constant for all values of ξ while σ is the highest and lowest at ξ = 60° and 240°, respectively, and τB assumes multiple occurrences of low and high values during one complete rotation of the tool pin. The resultant maximum shear stress, τmax, is the highest at ξ = 120° and 180° where τB is at its maximum and the component of τT along τB is in the same direction as that of τB. In contrast, τmax, is the minimum at ξ = zero and 300° where τ is also the maximum while the component of τT along τB is in the opposite direction as that of τB. The estimated maximum value of τmax is 581.76 MPa for the regular triangular pin. Fig. 6(b) depicts the estimated results of the largest magnitude in τmax for four different regular polygonal pins for the welding conditions considered here. The largest magnitude of τmax reduces from the triangular pin profile to the hexagon pin profile, which is attributed to the enhanced structural stiffness and the decrease in traverse force with an increase in the number of pin sides.

The failure wave which is one of the most

The failure wave, which is one of the most important discoveries in impact dynamics field over the last 20 years, is a new brittle failure mechanism of some brittle materials, such as glass and ceramics, etc., under compressive shock loading. It was observed by Rasorenov [7] and Kanel [8] through an observation of a small recompression signal on the free surface velocity history of shocked K19 glass. Continuing efforts have been made to confirm the existence of failure waves in other types of glasses [9–12] and ceramics, such as alumina [13,14], silicon carbide [15] and boron carbide [16]. The formation and propagation mechanisms of this failure phenomenon have been proposed over the last two decades. However, the understanding of the failure wave phenomenon is still far from complete because there are some disagreement and controversy between the available data and theoretical predictions. For example, up to now, it BAY 87-2243 is not sure whether the propagating velocity of failure wave, which is a crucial parameter to characterize the failure wave phenomenon, is a constant or not under a certain dynamic loading. Refs. [7,8] reported that the failure wave velocity decreased with the increase in propagation distance in shock loaded materials. However, more researchers believed that the failure wave velocity in brittle materials is constant with the given external loading and increases with the increase in loading intensity. In this paper, the velocity of failure wave in shocked alumina was measured by the VISAR technique. And the formation mechanism of failure wave of alumina was further analyzed.

The density of the tested alumina, ρ0, is 3.896 g/cm3, the measured longitudinal wave velocity cl is 9.259 km/s, the shear wave velocity cs is 5.557 km/s, and the Poisson ratio v is 0.218. The calculated sound velocity corresponding to the volume compressibility of the material is
The double-thickness target developed in the study is shown in Fig. 1, in which two sub-targets are embedded into a two-hole target ring, with the impact surfaces of both the target ring and two sub-targets being rigorously set on one plane. The plate impact experiments under the one-dimensional strain condition were carried out on a Φ100 mm one-stage light gas gun, and two free surface velocity histories of each sub-target were recorded simultaneously by the VISAR technique. Impact velocities were measured to 1.5% accuracy using three pairs of electric signal pins and were all in the range of 439–445 m/s. So the samples were considered to undergo the same compressive state approximately.

Results and discussions
Fig. 2 shows the measured free surface velocity profiles of alumina samples with different thicknesses. These profiles show an initial elastic precursor wave followed by the onset of a dispersive inelastic wave which characterizes the material yielding. The onset point is denoted as HEL, which can be determined by the well-known relationwhere ρ0 is the density of alumina, cl is the longitudinal wave velocity, and uH is the free surface velocity.
However, the free surface velocity profiles of alumina show glycogen the transition from elastic phase to inelastic phase occurs gradually. There is no sharp distinction between the elastic part and inelastic part. The rounded transition from the elastic part to inelastic part makes the unambiguous determination of HEL value difficult. We tried to distinguish a turning point of elastic phase to inelastic phase in Fig. 2, and obtained σH of alumina using Eq. (1), as shown in Table 1. It is noted that the HEL of alumina obtained in the present study ranges from 4.41 GPa to 5.59 GPa. These data and the HELs of other aluminas [4,17,18] similar in composition are presented in Fig. 3. It is shown that the HELs of tested alumina are lower than the data presented by others. The difference in the value of σH here may be attributed to the differences in the composition, density, preparation process of samples, or the distinction of turning point.

TATB based PBXs formulations such as LX and PBX

TATB based PBXs formulations such as LX-17 and PBX 9502 [18–21] have been developed for nuclear bomb, missiles and space applications. TATB has a high thermal stability, insensitive in terms of impact and friction but poor performance. The performance of formulations has been enhanced either to use new explosive molecule having better performance than TATB or admixture of high energetic materials which has a high performance and comparatively less sensitive to ensure the safety parameters [22–24]. Therefore, PBXs based on HMX and TATB have been formulated with polymer matrices; Estane, Viton A and Kel-F 800 to some extent compromise with insensitivity [25,26]. These formulations have been characterized in terms of density, detonation velocity, ignition temperature and other explosive properties which are covered under few reports and in paper also [27–37]. The thermal decomposition behaviour and kinetics are very important because it ensures safety parameters during handling, processing, production and storage [38–40]. PBXs based on HMX or TATB have been extensively investigated for the thermal decomposition behaviour and its kinetics [41–44] by means of non-isothermal thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The kinetic parameters of HMX based PBXs with Viton A [45], C4 [46], Formex [47] and Semtex [48,49] have been investigated and published. Brunham and Weese [50] have investigated the kinetics of PBXs with three SB 203580 hydrochloride binders; Estane 5703, Viton A and Kel-F 800 by performing TG measurements at different heating rates, exhibited that Viton A and Kel-F 800 were more thermally stable than HMX and TATB. Craig et al. [51] have been studied thermal behaviour of PBXs based SB 203580 hydrochloride on HMX or TATB with same endothermic binders, exhibited longer times to thermal explosion than those of pure HMX or TATB in the one-dimensional time to explosion and in other thermal experiments [52,53].
Moreover, the decomposition kinetic models with different polymeric matrices have been published as both kinetic parameters and reaction models are the key factor for the prediction of the thermal hazard properties. It has been reported that the effect of the polymer matrices on the decomposition mechanism has been significantly observed and resulting in very different reaction models. Tarver and Tran have also been measured the decomposition models to predict of explosion and the locations within the explosive charges [54]. However, the thermal decomposition behaviour and kinetics of PBXs based on mixture of TATB and HMX with Viton A are less addressed in an open literature. In our previous study [55], the mechanical and explosive properties of PBXs based on mixture of HMX and TATB have been investigated and published.


Results and discussion

In the present study, the thermal properties such as Tg, Tm and thermal decomposition were investigated for PBXs based on mixture of HMX and TATB with Viton A using STA and DSC. The results indicate that 9–72% weight loss was occurred in the first step due to thermal decomposition of HMX. It was also found that weight loss was increased with increasing HMX amount. TGA indicated that Tonset and Tmax values were slightly increased with increasing HMX amount. These results suggested that the HMX, TATB and Viton A were thermally stable and compatible with each other. The activation energies were ranged from 524 to 1219 kJ/mol, and the natural logarithm of pre-exponential factor were ranged from 104.4 to 261.4 s−1 for a single heating rate measurement under non-isothermal condition. The activation energy was significantly increased with increasing the HMX amount in the first step thermal decomposition. The kinetics were also investigated by using FWO and KAS methods. The TGA indicated that the decomposition of HT4050 was occurred in distinct steps at multiple heating rates under non-isothermal condition. The results indicated that activation energies were 1290 to 1050 kJ/mol at conversion of 0.1–0.45, whereas at conversion of 0.65–0.8, the activation energy was ranged from 81.4 to 156.3 kJ/mol, and the third step decomposition the activation energy was attributed to 130 and 186.1 kJ/mol at conversion of 0.85 and 0.9 respectively by FWO method. The activation energy calculated by both FWO and KAS methods was close to each other. The mean activation energy was also a good agreement with a single heating rate measurement in the first step decomposition.

Si bien es cierto que en los se estabiliz en

Si bien es cierto que en los 80 se estabilizó en toda Latinoamérica un feminismo que se reconoce en las otras luchas sociales, el papel jugado localmente por atem fue, sin duda, mucho más molecular order betaxolol la hora de delinear las agendas públicas o políticas que lo que su grado de inscripción política sugiere (invisibilidad política), o de lo que se ha escrito o se sabe sobre su historia (invisibilidad académica). Sin embargo, y por otra parte, es también necesario remarcar que este indiscutible proceso positivo conllevó una serie de efectos negativos para la historia del feminismo local. Más concretamente, el combate emprendido por las feministas de los 80 para con los rezagos —o las antiguallas— del feminismo anterior produjo un efecto de silenciamiento que tuvo las correspondientes secuelas de invisibilización, tergiversación y trivialización de los ensayos políticos y los escarceos intelectuales de los feminismos argentinos en los años 70. Estos ensayos, a pesar de sus limitaciones, fueron pioneros en varios de sus postulados que hoy día continúan siendo contribuciones fundamentales para el desarrollo del feminismo local.
A los silencios cocidos al calor de las rivalidades y los malentendidos entre agrupaciones —moneda viviente entre las diversas posiciones del feminismo local—, se sobreimprimió el silencio sobre la militancia peronista femenina y quien fuera su emblema, Eva Perón. De allí la inquietud suscitada por la presencia del nombre peronista entreverado en el nombre feminista. En el atroz 1976, María Elena Walsh, figura crucial de la cultura feminista argentina, publica su Cancionero para el mal de ojos. Uno de los textos que lo integran es “Eva”, e inevitable resulta no escuchar allí ese entrevero de los nombres y el despuntar de una más generosa revisión del pasado, como lo muestra este fragmento:
Se instala entonces la pregunta por las razones que estancaron y siguen aminorando la calidad y el alcance de los debates en el feminismo latinoamericano. Entre ellas, Lamas, siguiendo a reflex arc Pereda, ubica la función de la arrogancia y su papel en la dificultad para el reconocimiento del otro. Para esta militante y académica, la arrogancia funge como “una estrategia que comparten dos inculturas: la académica y la antiacadémica” (Lamas 2006: 116). En ambas posiciones, opera una lógica sectaria que se nutre de sus propios blindajes teóricos y que produce el efecto fantasmático de inventar un contendiente que no hace más que impermeabilizar el ya ajustado terreno de las propias certezas. Teoría versus práctica, pensamiento versus acción y ciencia versus política son otras tantas parejas terminológicas que hacen al chantaje argumental, y no a la controversia.
La proliferación de esas oposiciones en la discusión es, para Lamas, en parte, consecuencia del clima antintelectual que se vivió en Latinoamérica entre fines de los años 80 y los comienzos del siglo en curso. Dice Lamas que, habida cuenta del estado de la discusión en el movimiento feminista latinoamericano, “la teoría no es un lujo sino que es una necesidad vital” (Lamas 2006: 116). En esa dirección, podemos decir que es vital, porque formaliza la escena del debate, y esa formalización hoy es un prerrequisito de cualquier interpretación política o epistemológica del mundo en que nos toca militar o conocer. Sólo mediante esa formalización será posible el desacuerdo, que no debe confundirse con el desconocimiento o el malentendido, sino que surge, entre otras cosas, de la claridad que guía el florecimiento del debate. La ausencia de ordenamiento simbólico es terreno fértil para desventuras imaginarias.
Los archivos y las escrituras de estos feminismos argentinos que hemos querido recobrar muestran que hicieron su esfuerzo militante e intelectual, y que lo hicieron a contrapelo de una historia nacional cruenta e inmersos en la larga noche del feminismo latinoamericano. Una noche atestada de silencios

Qui nes nos identificamos entonces

¿Quiénes nos identificamos, entonces, como Por lo general, aquellas personas que fuimos diagnosticadas y que sufrimos la intervención biomédica. En ese sentido, gran parte del activismo no se funda sólo en la experiencia de la diferencia corporal, sino también en la de aquella otra diferencia, que podríamos llamar ética, de la intervención médica.
: ¿De qué experiencia se trata?
: Distintos escritores —pienso en Hale Hawbecker en este momento— hablan de cuerpos no intervenidos y de la experiencia brutal de la mirada y la palabra de los otros y las otras. Si bien sus padres lo aceptaron como un hombre con un pene muy pequeño, él refiere el momento en el que su cuerpo es mirado y marcado por una expresión médica horrorizada: “¿quién te hizo esto?” (). La como sitio es la producción de ese horror, que excede al médico, que habla de un entramado de los cuerpos en la cultura. Sin embargo, la experiencia de much*s activistas —me atrevería pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide decir de la mayoría— es la del cuerpo intervenido, lo cual crea una multiplicidad de cuerpos en juego: por un lado, el cuerpo vivido cotidianamente, marcado, cortado y cosido, insensibilizado; por otro lado, el cuerpo perdido, que puede imaginarse o recordarse, fantasearse, el cuerpo que hay que reconstruir, la experiencia de la historia personal robada, de la historia clínica ocultada, falseada o destruida. En ese sentido, la experiencia intersexual es la de un trágico, en su sentido aristotélico, la de un camino de autodescubrimiento que no se resuelve en ninguna redención. La subjetividad se funda en la intensidad de una experiencia del En ese sentido, la intersexualidad es un producto paradójico, cruelmente paradójico, de los procedimientos médicos destinados a erradicarla.
: ¿Qué demanda el activismo político y cuáles han sido sus logros más importantes hasta ahora?
: Nuestras demandas son simples y comienzan, como afirma Cheryl Chase, con la reubicación del problema: del sistema biomédi- co al sistema cultural de los géneros en el que la biomedicina funciona, y la estigmatización de los cuerpos que varían. Si persiste el modelo actual de asignación, binario, se demanda la asignación de cada individuo al género femenino o masculino, de acuerdo con las mejores expectativas de una vida feliz, y teniendo en cuenta, decisivamente, la experiencia de asignaciones anteriores; pero esa asignación inicial no debe implicar la modificación quirúrgica, del cuerpo, para darle a platelets ese niño o niña la posibilidad de decidir acerca de la necesidad de modificarlo o no en el futuro, con pleno conocimiento de las consecuencias que cada decisión comporte ().
Hemos logrado que nuestra existencia El trabajo pionero de Cheryl Chase y de la Intersex Society of North America () logró algo fundamental: la transmisión. ¿Qué es lo que repite como un Hay una vida posible. No estás solo. No estás sola. No estás sol*. No sos un monstruo. Y si sos un monstruo, bienvenid* seas: no sos el únic*. Hemos podido llorar y consolarnos junt*s. Hemos contado nuestras historias a quienes podían, carnalmente, reconocerlas como suyas. Ha habido también un conjunto importante de intervenciones públicas. El que la presentó a la Corte Constitucional de Colombia en 1999, por ejemplo, constituyó un elemento central en esos dos fallos históricos que, hasta la actualidad, son el mejor testimonio del modo en el que el sistema jurídico-normativo puede proteger la integridad corporal y la autonomía decisional de niñ*s . Pero también le hemos dado a otras familias la oportunidad de encontrarnos, de conversar con nosotr*s aquello que rara vez pueden conversar con profesionales: los resultados Hemos introducido un nuevo vocabulario, complicando la lengua, agregando asteriscos, arrobas, imposibilidades del decir, le hemos dado un trabalenguas a la lengua, la hemos puesto a tartamudear. ¿Hemos detenido algún cuchillo? Eso es lo que espero.
: Pero ¿y qué hay de la representación política?

Me parece que la descripci n

Me parece que la descripción autoetnográfica que elabora Monsiváis de la noche disidente de los años 90 tiene, en muchos sentidos, el mismo tono de la realizada por Novo para las primeras décadas del siglo xx. Hay en ambos un tono mordaz pero quieto, una agudeza que se fija en los detalles y en los cuadros generales que se desarrollan monoamine transporter su alrededor, una mirada solitaria y una lengua seductora. Los dos describen un mundo sórdido hecho de acomodos siempre frágiles, de silencios y pactos, de renuncias y pérdidas. Monsiváis escribe que “gracias a la impudicia o la tradición de no-tener-nada-que-perder, los homosexuales instituyen zonas de estridencia y provocación que, en rigor, son los primeros espacios de resistencia” (Monsiváis 1998: 34). La resistencia surge como un resultado no planeado del afán de tener ciertos lugares: las zonas de estridencia y provocación que instituyeron los homosexuales. Pero siempre son un margen, más o menos amplio, más o menos clandestino y secreto, perseguido o tolerado; un borde o un deslinde del mundo real y normal.
También los sujetos se ubican en esa marginalidad estridente y provocadora. Monsiváis se pregunta:
La interiorización de los insultos es una forma de trazar el margen en la subjetividad misma, como lo hace Novo con sus autoescarnios, y sus contemporáneos con el choteo y autochoteo. La única manera de lograrlo, como antes lo dijimos, es estableciendo una distancia que permita recibir el insulto, interiorizarlo y luego desdeñarlo por irreal. Lo real regresa de nuevo, pero esta vez de la mano de los escritos de Monsiváis: ¿por qué la intensidad hiriente de las agresiones las haría parcialmente irreales?, ¿la irrealidad está del lado de las agresiones o del agredido?, ¿no podría pensarse que los insultos dan realidad, no la querida, pero alguna al menos, a quien los recibe, y que solo se puede insultar a alguien real? No habría insultos para fantasmas, aunque se recomiende lanzarles improperios a las apariciones y otras presencias semejantes, si llegaran a cruzarse en nuestro camino. En ese caso, ¿por qué huirían al escuchar los insultos? Tal vez podríamos hipotetizar que lo hacen justamente porque eso los hace reales. Los fantasmas agredidos no huirían de los insultos, sino de la realidad que implican.
Monsiváis, sin pensar en aparecidos, escribe, paso siguiente, que: “lo intensamente real de los gays se centra en el coito, en el diálogo con los iguales centrado obsesivamente en el sexo. Al ser tan costosa en lo psíquico y lo social la disidencia, acrecientan su significado y su valor los actos sexuales y el idioma del ghetto’ (Monsiváis 1998: 38). ¿Qué sería lo real del coito o más bien qué tipo de intenso real daría el coito? El sexo sería el lugar de una igualdad disidente, pero también el sedimento del idioma del gueto que sirve ante todo para hablar de sexo, como el de Novo servía para burlarse de sí mismo y de los otros homosexuales.
El texto sobre la noche popular solo describe colectivos y multitudes urbanas; el de Novo, un personaje histórico y famoso. Monsiváis ve en la noche popular tipos de sujetos que deambulan, sacudidos a stamens las crisis recurrentes del país, pero indemnes en sus deseos. Monsiváis y Novo describen el sexo proletario; ambos hablan de soldados y de hombres de clases populares, pero los ven de lejos, atractivos y peligrosos a la vez. Dice Monsiváis que Novo:
Varias décadas después, muchos ya pueden hablar y son dignos de la palabra, en diversos sentidos. Pero esos hombres y mujeres a quienes ambos autores rodean y miran, a quienes describen de alguna manera, permanecen en silencio. La comunidad que se ha formado es también un límite: entre clases sociales, entre mundos de vida, entre palabras y derechos adquiridos. Monsiváis escribe en su texto sobre la vida nocturna capitalina: “Me detengo al borde del extravío de las identificaciones, y reconozco lo convincente de la voz, cualquiera sea su origen” (Monsiváis 2010b). Ha presenciado un show travesti y está confuso acerca de la identidad de la artista. Se detiene en ese borde que atribuye al otro y no a sus propias categorías de visibilidad e inteligibilidad. De Novo dice que “la provocación es un gran instrumento de salud mental, y por eso todo lo ostenta, su relación con los choferes de autobuses, con los luchadores, con los soldados” (Monsiváis 2008: 59). Ambos autores, cada uno a su manera, son creadores de una alteridad sexual, nocturna, apenas descriptible, pero siempre muda. Esos hombres no hablan. Si la práctica de sí que antes mencionamos requería de la distancia, de carácter retórico, del sujeto con respecto a sí mismo, las prácticas colectivas de constitución de comunidades y redes requieren de esta distancia social en relación con el otro popular. El coleccionista describe sus objetos de maneras diversas: los más raros y lejanos solo a grandes rasgos. En este ejercicio histórico, algunos hablan y otros callan definitivamente.

Complete surgical excision is sufficient for mature and Grade

Complete surgical excision is sufficient for mature and Grade 1 immature teratomas. Optimal treatment by complete resection followed by close observation and follow-up, withholding chemotherapy until there is an evidence of disease recurrence, is recommended for Grade 2 and 3 immature teratomas. This principle is generally followed for all extragonadal immature teratomas. In a case where the alpha-fetoprotein level starts rising after a few months of complete excision of the teratoma, chemotherapy is administered.
The prognosis following complete surgical excision of a gastric teratoma, both mature and immature types, has been shown to be excellent. Madecassoside manufacturer It holds good, even if there is extension to adjacent organs. Madecassoside manufacturer of tumor offers recurrence-free survival without requiring chemotherapy or radiotherapy. One case of recurrence has been reported in the literature.



Tuberculosis (TB), a re-emerging disease, is a cause of growing worldwide concern because of its increased unusual presentations. Primary hepatic tuberculoma is rare in healthy immunocompetent patients. Most hepatic involvement in TB is considered secondary because of its association with miliary TB. The macronodular form of hepatic TB was first reported in 1858 by Bristowe. Primary hepatic TB results from tubercular bacilli gaining access to the portal vein from a microscopic tubercular focus in the bowel with subsequent healing occurring at the site of entry and leaving no trace.

Case Report
A 56-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain and loss of weight and appetite for the preceding 3 weeks. Clinically, she was jaundiced with right upper quadrant tenderness. Initial blood investigations revealed anemia, a deranged liver profile consistent with obstructive jaundice, and elevated CA 19-9 level (562 U/mL). Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level was 2.7 ng/mL. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an ill-defined heterogeneously enhancing mass of 3.5 cm × 4.0 cm with periportal lymphadenopathy at the hepatic hilum. Cholangiocarcinoma was diagnosed on the basis of the aforementioned history and clinical findings. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a hilar stricture (Fig. 1). Following this, the patient underwent a biliary decompression procedure. Later, she underwent a central hepatectomy. Intraoperatively, yellowish nodules on both liver lobes were observed with mesenteric and omental lymphadenopathies, which were not visualized on CT (Fig. 2). A frozen section biopsy showed predominantly lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltrates, multiple granuloma with central necrosis, and multinucleated Langhans-type giant cells suggestive of TB. In addition, a complete histopathological examination confirmed the aforementioned findings (Fig. 3). In subsequent testing, the patient was nonreactive for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and acid-fast bacilli. In addition, thoracic CT scan showed no evidence of pulmonary TB. The patient was placed on antitubercular therapy, and her condition improved. A CT scan 6 months later demonstrated that the size of the lesions was reduced when compared with the size of lesions observed at presentation (Figs. 4 and 5).

Approximately one-third of the world\’s population is latently infected with Mycobacterium TB, with 2 million deaths reported annually, predominantly in developing countries. In addition, TB remains the leading cause of death among AIDS patients. Levin classified hepatic TB as miliary TB, pulmonary TB with hepatic involvement, primary hepatic TB, focal tuberculoma or abscess or tuberculous cholangitis. Approximately 80% of hepatic TB are of the miliary form. Isolated primary hepatic TB is rare because of the low oxygen tension within the liver, making it unfavorable for mycobacterial growth.
The presence of a deranged hepatic function, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, and hyponatremia are not specific to TB. The sensitivity of serology for acid-fast staining bacilli and blood cultures is as low as 0–45% and 10–60%, respectively. Tuberculin skin test is typically positive and when used in combination with polymerase chain reaction, which has a sensitivity and specificity of 58% and 96%, respectively, improves detection rates. However, these specific tests can be requested only if there is clinical suspicion.

aminolevulinic acid Conclusions can be made from many

Conclusions can be made from many in vitro studies including those mentioned above that citrus flavonoids exert strong anti-cancer activities. However, the beneficial effectiveness of a drug or a nutrient can only be attested by in vivo efficacy studies. In this review, we summarize the in vivo anti-cancer effect of bioactive compounds either as single aminolevulinic acid or as a mixture of molecules from citrus peels. The anti-cancer activity of citrus peel flavonoids has been evaluated on several animal models, including cancers of skin [17,29], colon [30–34], prostate [33,35], lung [36], and liver [37] among others.

Citrus flavonoids and their biological activity
Citrus and citrus peels contain common flavonoids, such as hesperidin, naringin, neohesperidin, narirutin, eriocitrin, didymin and rutin among others [27,46,47]. A number of studies have demonstrated the biological properties of these citrus flavonoids including anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that promote and benefit human health [46–49]. In addition to citrus flavonoids, citrus peels are also the sole and rich source of polymethoxylated flavonoids, which were found to exert many biological properties, particularly anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity [1,4,5,7]. Recent studies have also demonstrated potent anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of 5-demethylated polymethoxyflavones in single molecules [5,50,51] or in multiple 5-demethylated polymethoxyflavones [52]. The natural content of 5-demethylated polymethoxyflavones in citrus peels is low in percentage, but it has been confirmed that they have more potent biological activity than their non-demethylated counterparts, such as anticancer activity [50–52].
In essence, there are three subclasses of citrus flavonoids exiting abundantly in citrus peels, namely, polyhydroxyflavonoids, polymethoxyflavonoids and mixed substituted flavonoids with both hydroxyl and methoxyl groups, particularly 5-demethylated polymethoxyflavnoids. These flavonoids have demonstrated effective anti-cancer property both in vitro and in vivo, either in a form of individual compounds or in a mixture of citrus flavonoids. The anti-cancer study of these flavonoids has progressed well in recent years owing albeit in the initial steps to the modern chemical analysis and isolation and the biological activity testing. However, with the exception of nobiletin, the relationships between each individual flavonoid in citrus peels and its bioactivity such as anti-carcinogenesis remain untouched to some extent. Relationships among the naturally proportioned flavonoids in citrus peels and their biological activities are even more complex and unexplored.

In summary, the in vivo studies provide compelling evidence that flavonoids from citrus peels, such as nobiletin and citrus peel extract (CPE) demonstrated potent anti-tumor activities in cancers of skin, colon, prostate, lung and liver. The therapeutic mechanism may include inhibition of inflammation, proliferation, angiogenesis, and induction of apoptosis. A characteristic and unusual feature of flavonoids from citrus peels is their high concentration of a diverse assortment of polyhydroxylated flavonoids, polymethoxyflavones, and other flavonoids. Nobiletin, a representative of citrus polymethoxyflavones, expressed potent efficacious activity against carcinogenesis. In view of other studies examining the impact of individual flavonoids such as polyhydroxylated flavonoids (PHFs) or polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) and related flavonoids [1], it is possible that the biological properties of mixed flavonoids from citrus peels summarized above are due to an additive or synergistic interaction of the complex mixture of phytochemicals, which may provide enhanced anti-cancer efficacy. The detailed mechanisms by which these flavonoids in citrus peel exert optimal benefits remain to be further elucidated. However, the evidence presented in this review illustrates that citrus flavonoids could prove to be an effective anti-cancer agent, especially against skin, colon, prostate, lung and liver cancer and encourage future research to evaluate its efficacy in human clinical trials.